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Full text of "The sign language : a manual of signs illustrated, being a descriptive vocabulary of signs used by the deaf of the United States and Canada"

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THE SIGN LANGUAGE 



A Manual of Signs 



Being a descriptive vocabulary of signs used 

by the Deaf of the United States 

and Canada 



ILLUSTRATED 



BY 



J. SCHUYLER LONG, A. M., LITT. D. 

Principal of the Iowa School for the Deaf, 
Council Bluffs, Iowa 



SECOND EDITION 
Revised and Enlarged 



DES MOINES, IOWA 

ROBERT HENDERSON 

1918 



Copyright 1918, by J. Schuyler Long 



INTRODUCTION 

The first edition of the Sign Manual having been exhausted 
and the demand for copies being continuous the only thing 
to do was to get out a second edition which is herewith pre- 
sented with such changes and additions as experience has 
suggested. 

Among these additions the most important is an appendix 
containing distinctively Catholic signs, with illustrations to 
accompany the descriptions. 

The manual originally had its inception while the author 
was teaching signs to a class of hearing teachers. After the 
signs had been shown, a written description was furnished 
as a guide for reference. The success of the plan suggested 
that such a descriptive vocabulary would be a help to those 
who were anxious to learn the sign language and to others 
who felt the occasional need of some standard of reference to 
refresh their memory or add to the signs already known. 

The work is not presented with the idea that persons 
unfamiliar with the deaf or their language can take it up and 
therefrom master the art of communicating in the language of 
pantomine and understand its peculiarities. But it is be- 
lieved that those who have had some experience with the deaf 
and have opportunities to see the signs made will find it easy 
to follow the instructions given. As with all other languages, 
so with this language, ease and familiarity in its use and the 
mastery of its idiom come only by long practice and asso- 
ciation with those to whom it is most familiar. 

The Sign Language is not now used as a means in the edu- 
cation of the deaf to so great an extent as during the early 
years of the work. And in no school is it taught as was for- 
merly the case. Its use in schools for the deaf at present 
is confined to chapel and religious exercises, in their social 
gatherings of pupils and on the playground. 

As a result, pupils merely pick it up haphazard and often 
from those unfamiliar with it, and no attempt is made to see 
that it is learned and used correctly. Consequently this very 
useful and valuable language of pantomime has not been 
acquired by the rising generation in that purity and perfection 
attained by the deaf and their instructors during the early 
decades of its use in this country. It is believed, therefore, 



4 TEE SIGN LANGUAGE 

that the adult deaf on leaving school will find the manual 
of assistance in acquiring a more certain and accurate com- 
mand of their natural language. 

Another hope of the author is that it will help to preserve 
this expressive language, to which the deaf owe so much, in its 
original purity and beauty, and that it will serve as a stand- 
ard of comparison in different parts of the country, thereby 
tending to secure greater uniformity. 

The list below, I believe, includes practically all of the 
root signs used by the deaf. It is by the use of these in 
combination and for definition that the signs for other words 
are made. It is not feasible in a work of this kind to indicate 
the combination for every word, owing to the fact that it 
is an ideographic and not a word language. 

The words have been grouped under certain heads or classes 
into which they seemed most naturally to fall. At times the 
relation of certain words to their head may appear far-fetched 
and the classification somewhat arbitrary, but such words 
have been so placed on account of suggestion or association. 

In making acknowledgments it is a pleasure to name first 
of all the one who has ever been my greatest inspiration and 
help in the preparation of the work — my wife. In taking up 
the task I had her prompting and encouragement, and during 
its progress her suggestions, advice and help were of the 
greatest value. She alone made the additional drawings on 
the photographs which amplified and completed the illus- 
trations. 

I am also indebted to Eev. Dr. Philip J. Hasenstab, of 
Chicago, who carefully went over the manuscript, verifying 
the descriptions, pointing out errors, and offering many sug- 
gestions which have added to the value of the completed 
material. Dr. Hasenstab received his early education in the 
Indiana school under early masters of the Sign Language 
who learned it at Hartford. This gives the assurance, there- 
fore, that the descriptions conform to the original manner of 
making the signs. 

In the preparation of the second edition I am further in- 
debted to Rev. Father F. A. Moeller, formerly of Chicago, 
but now of Kansas City, for the descriptions of distinctively 
Catholic signs which are here added. Father Moeller is presi- 
dent of the Catholic Deaf-Mute Conference which approved 
his sign vocabulary. In addition to furnishing the descrip- 
tions he posed for the pictures used in the illustrations. 

February, 1918. J. SCHUYLER LONG. 



THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

The Abbe (Charles Michel) de l'Epee is regarded as the in- 
ventor of the Sign Language of the deaf. He was born in 
1712 at Varsailles where his father was an architect in the 
royal service. Rejected as a candidate for holy orders because 
he refused to sign certain doctrinal tenets he studied law and 
was admitted as an advocate in Paris. Three years later, 
however he followed his greater inclination and was finally 
accepted in the priesthood. 

In the course of his priestly labors he came across two deaf- 
mute sisters who had been partly educated by one Father 
Vanin by means of pictures. On Father Vanin's death their 
education came to a halt and the Abbe de l'Epee, moved by 
their condition resolved to take up and continue it. He found 
other deaf children and undertook their education. Thus his 
life work began and henceforth, not only his energies, but his 
private means, were devoted to the education of the deaf. 

To carry out his plan he conceived the idea of using natural 
signs, and these not being sufficient to answer the purpose 
of grammatical syntax he invented others until he had system- 
atized a vocabulary of considerable size. Many of his signs, 
of course, were arbitrary but the majority were based on 
natural pantomime. He published a volume, and later a re- 
vised edition of the same, describing his methods and system 
of signs. 

Altho he taught some of his pupils to articulate, he believed 
signs were the vernacular of the deaf and hence essential to 
their comprehension and translation of ideas into language. 

He founded a school for the deaf in Paris in 1760, his work 
being entirely philanthropic. Previous efforts to educate the 
deaf had been sporadic and confined to scions of the nobility, 
but de l'Epee seems to have been the first to open his school to 
the poor and he carried on his labors without expectation of 
pecuniary reward. De l'Epee died in 1789 and was succeeded 
as head, of the school by the Abbe (Roch Ambroise Cucurron) 



6 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Sicard. Three years later the school was taken over by the 
government and became the "National Institute." 

In 1815 several gentlemen of Hartford, Connecticut, headed 
by Dr. Cogswell, who had a deaf daughter, became interested 
in the establishment of a school for the deaf in this country. 
The Eev. Thomas H. Gallaudet had shown some interest in the 
work and made experimental efforts in teaching Alice Cogs- 
well. These gentlemen resolved to send Gallaudet abroad to 
study methods there by way of preparation for starting the 
school they had in mind. When Gallaudet reached England 
he found the work in that country under a monopoly in the 
hands of the Braidwood family. They refused to allow him 
access to their secrets or to give him any assistance except 
under conditions with which he could not comply. He met 
the Abbe Sicard in London and was by him cordially invited 
to visit the school at Paris. There he was shown every cour- 
tesy and spent several months studying methods and learning 
the sign language. Returning to America he brought with 
him Laurent Clerc, a graduate of the Paris school and at that 
time a teacher in his alma mater. When the school at Hartford 
was opened, Clerc was employed as an instructor, teaching 
the sign language to other instructors, and thus the so-called 
"French method" with its language of pantomime Avas intro- 
duced into this country. 

Finger spelling used by the deaf and in their education was 
originated by neither them nor their teachers but is a borrowed 
art. No authentic information is obtainable as to its origin 
but the researches of the late Prof. J. C. Gordon, of Gallaudet 
college brought to light certain historical data from which we 
get the following facts : 

The Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used finger signs for 
numbers. There is evidence of the existence of dactylology 
among the Assyrians, on their monuments of art, down to the 
fifteenth century. The venerable Bede described finger spell- 
ing more than a thousand years ago and three manual alpha- 
bets are figured in an edition of his works printed in 1532. 

Monks and others under vows of silence as well as others 
who had special reasons for secret communication used both 
signs and finger spelling. Rossellius, a Florentine monk, men- 
tioned three such alphabets in 1579. 

The first finger alphabet adopted in teaching spoken and 
written language to the deaf was the Spanish one-hand alpha- 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 7 

Let which contain certain forms found in the Florentine plates 
of 1579. The idea of using it in this connection originated 
with a pious and learned monk, Pedro Ponce de Leon. (1520- 
1584.) 

The Spanish alphabet, somewhat modified, was introduced 
into France by Pereire and his gifted deaf pupil, Saboureaux 
de Fontenay where it speedily supplanted the clumsy alpha- 
bets used by de l'Epee and others. An improved form of this 
alphabet was learned by Gallaudet while in France and with 
a few slight changes was adopted by him when he opened the 
first permanent school for the deaf in America at Hartford. 

In making the letters it is recommended that the arm be 
held in an easy position near the body with the forearm as 
indicated in the plates. It is not necessary to move the arm, 
but a short leverage is conducive to ease and permissible, 
provided the hand delivers the letters within an imaginary 
ring, of, say, ten inches in diameter. In colloquial use the 
fingers need not be so closely held nor so firmly flexed as rep- 
resented in the cuts; but sprawling should be avoided. Each 
letter should be mastered before leaving it. 

Certain letters, as c, d, i, j, k, 1, m, n, o, q, u, v, w, and z, 
resemble written or printed forms. J is simply traced in the 
air with the little finger and z is in like manner traced with 
the index finger. H, u, and n differ only in the position of 
the hand and t is formed as in "taking off baby's nose." 

These ten words contain all the letters and should be prac- 
ticed upon: adz, fan, map, low, box, jar, sky, hat, quill, glove. 

The sign language is an ideographic and pantomimic lan- 
guage. Except in the case of a few arbitrary signs they all 
represent some distinctive suggestion of the action, shape, 
or characteristic of the object or idea they are intended to 
signify. Thus in the signs for "run" and "walk" the hands 
take the place of the feet in making the motion of the latter 
to convey the idea of these actions. In the signs for "bird," 
"horse," and "cow," the fingers form the bill, the arms rep- 
resent the wings, fingers the ears, and the hands the horns of 
these animals respectively. So, with few exceptions, when 
signs are carefully analyzed or traced to their origin, we will 
find a reasonable connection between the pantomime and the 
object or idea. 

Many signs, however, have been modified, until they appear 
more or less arbitrary and have lost their original connection 



8 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

and significance. They are, as a rule, made colloquially briefer 
when combined in a narrative than when made alone, and 
when several signs are rapidly made one after another they 
apparently lose their individuality, though to the experienced 
observer the essential part of the sign is preserved. For there 
are usually some essential movements of the hands or fingers 
in each sign and some that are not essential, and a one-armed 
man making the necessary part of the signs with one hand in- 
stead of two against his body or a near-by object is readily 
understood. 

In using signs to express thought an idea is presented in 
word pictures rather than in an orderly arrangement of single 
signs that correspond to single words in grammatical order. 
Hence there is not always an exact interpretation of the 
thought in words, but in pictures only. For this reason the 
language is manifestly imperfect when compared with written 
or spoken language. 

One sign conveying an idea may be translated into different 
words under different circumstances or as used in connection 
with different subjects. This is apparent in the use of the one 
sign for different grammatical forms of the same word, as there 
is no difference in making' the sign whether the adjective, the 
noun, or the adverb is intended. The context, so to speak, is 
depended upon to determine which of these is intended. Thus 
the sign for "love" conveying the idea of affection may mean 
the verb "love," the nouns "love," "affection," the adjectives 
"loving/* "'''dear," "affectionate," "loved," etc., and the ad- 
verbs "lovingly," "affectionately," and so on. "Pretty" 
may be also "beauty," "loveliness," "comeliness," "fair- 
ness," "beautiful," "lovely," "handsome," "fair," and again 
"beautifully," "handsomely," and so on through the list. 

It should be noted, in passing, what beginners sometimes 
overlook, that words spelled alike but different in meaning 
have different signs. This is obvious when one remembers 
ideas and not sounds are represented. Thus the preposition 
"to" and the infinitive "to" are vastly different in signs. 

The tense sign is not always necessary and in ordinary con- 
versation is rarely indicated except when one desires to be 
explicit. If at dinner one expresses an intention of going to 
town in the afternoon he simply says in signs, "I go town 
afternoon. This is interpreted as "I am going to town this 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 9 

afternoon," or "I will go," etc. If he has returned and men- 
tions the fact at supper that he went, he would use the same 
signs and it would naturally be interpreted as "I went to town 
this afternoon." Most likely, however, he would be even 
briefer than that, simply conveying the idea of town and 
going, and possibly make the sign for "finished" denoting 
that it had been done.' In both cases he depends upon the 
time he is speaking to make the tense understood. 

Other omissions are those of the prepositions and the 
articles. Also in asking a question the briefest sign, coupled 
with a look of inquiry, or a simple sign in reply to a question, 
may express the idea contained in a whole sentence. It is, 
for the most part, this tendency to eliminate, coupled with 
the imperfect use of the sign language by those with but 
scant knowledge of it, which causes so much confusion in 
the minds of young deaf children while they are acquiring 
English in the school room. And on account of this con- 
fusion it is held by many as undesirable for use in giving 
instruction therein; but it should not be unjustly blamed for 
the sins of our imperfect methods of educating the deaf. The 
haphazard, slipshod manner of using signs is to be strongly 
condemned and the English order should be followed as nearly 
as possible. 

The mastery of the sign language consists not so much in 
the number of signs one may know as in the cleverness with 
which those he does know are used. Many different ideas 
can be expressed with a few signs coupled with natural ges- 
tures. Many ideas having no sign of their own may readily 
be communicated by signs to define them. Indeed, many 
words must be signed in this way, which somewhat resembles 
the German way of coining words. "Gentleman" is literally 
(in signs) "polite man;" "neighbor" is "live-near-er;" and 
"coal" is "black hard." With whatever signs, few or many, 
and whatever the manner of delivery, one should aim to con- 
vey his idea or thought as plainly and forcibly as possible to 
others, so that the latter may be able to reproduce it in as 
good English or other language as the narrator would. So 
the success of reproduction is determined rather by the mental 
training of habitual reception, thought, and expression than 
by the sign language in itself. 

Signs undergo certain local changes, and new signs are 
coined to meet local requirements, so that some may be made 



10 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

differently in different parts of the country, while some local- 
ities have signs that others do not. In this it but follows the 
natural course of any other language and we have localisms in 
signs as well as speech. To this class belong the occasional 
slang signs with which a deaf person occasionally intersperses 
his talk, but with a few exceptions such signs are not given in 
the following list. 

The manner and emphasis have much to do with the sig- 
nificance of a sign. The degree of a quality is thus often in- 
dicated as well as the mood and feeling of the speaker. And 
it goes without saying that the expression must indicate joy 
or sorrow, fun or seriousness, and both the eyes and face 
must reflect the character of the idea expressed. One may 
express the idea of quietness by simply laying the fingers on 
the lips. But when the same finger is thrown violently against 
the lips with a rebuke expressed in the face, it becomes "keep 
still," while with an impudent or threatening look it may ex- 
press "shut up." The facial grimaces, however, and the 
"mouthing" affected by some, are in no way a part of the 
sign and the habit is to be strongly condemned. 

There are certain signs of importance, such as the tense 
signs and sex signs, which are added to the simple sign. Thus 
the signs for "now," "past," and "will" are used with all 
verb signs to indicate time, and "finished" is used to designate 
the complete tenses. "One" and "many" are added or pre- 
fixed to mark the singular and plural, while "male" and 
"female" indicate "sex." Others of this class are the pro- 
gressive sign and the auxiliary verbs. 

In connection with its incompleteness and imperfection when 
compared with written or spoken language, it should be re- 
membered that the sign language was originally designed as 
a means of educating young deaf children and the vocabulary 
was therefore limited. Its usefulness has gone far beyond this 
first purpose, and incomplete and imperfect though it may 
be, it is, in the hands of its masters, a most beautiful and ex- 
pressive language, for Avhich, in their intercourse with each 
other and as a means of easily and quickly reaching the minds 
of the deaf, neither nature nor art has given them a satisfac- 
tory substitute. 

In spite of the fact that it has been discarded from the school 
room and efforts made to relegate it to the past, the Sign Lan- 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 11 

guage is very much a live language. It is impossible for those 
who do not understand it to comprehend its possibilities with 
the deaf, its powerful influence on the moral and social happi- 
ness of those deprived of hearing, and its wonderful power 
of carrying thought to intellects which would otherwise be in 
perpetual darkness. 

But those who do understand it and know the deaf never fail 
to acknowledge its place in the lives of those who can not 
hear and to appreciate its importance as a factor in their hap- 
piness. Whether they favor one or another of the methods of 
educating the deaf, they recognize the very great value of 
signs in social intercourse among the deaf, and its necessity 
in the pulpit and on the platform. 

By means of the sign language the deaf child is enabled to 
comprehend subjects which his limited vocabulary would 
never enable him to do while dependent upon speech and 
reading alone. With the aid of an interpreter the deaf may 
enjoy lectures, sermons, plays, and all else while one of an 
audience, save, alone, music. Without signs they would 
be shut out from the full enjoyment of intellectual treats such 
as these. While in spiritual matters, signs enable the minister 
to reach thousands where any other method of communication 
would reach the few. Spiritual truths told and explained in 
the language of signs reach the understanding and the con- 
science of the deaf child as no other means can possibly do. 



EXPLANATORY 

In describing the position assumed to make the sign it is 
given as it would be in making the sign by itself. When a 
number of signs are made in succession, as in a continued nar- 
rative, they fall into the next position from the last without 
any stop, the movement of the arms and hands being prac- 
tically continuous. The sign is made, usually in front of the 
body in an easy position, the hands, unless otherwise specified, 
being held on a line with the elbows or a little above. 

In order to save repetition and ambiguity in description, 
certain positions of the hands used in making the manual 
alphabet are taken as basic positions. (See opposite page.) 
These are referred to as the "A" hand, the "B" hand, and 
so on, the positions being those of the hand in making those 
letters. In the "&" hand it should be noted that the last 
position of the hand in making the "&" is meant, and not 
its movement part. Besides the letter positions there are sev- 
eral others as follows : 

The "extended" or the "open hand." Hold the hand open, 
the fingers extended and close together, with the thumb ex- 
tended. It might be described as the position of the hand when 
one offers it to shake. 

The "closed 'O' hand." Make "0" with the thumb and 
forefinger while all the 'Other fingers are closed against the 
palm. 

The "extended 'O' hand." Make "0" with the thumb 
and forefingers as above but extend all the other fingers 
straight out. 

The "bent hand." Bend the fingers in toward the palm 
but not touching it. The fingers assume about the position 
they have in making "C," but the thumb is extended. 

The "5 hand." Hold the hand open, the fingers extended 
and separated, as in showing the number 5. 

In looking for any sign look for the word which most nearly 
seems to express the idea. 

The Roman figures refer to the plate in which the illus- 
tration will be found, the Arabic figures to the number under 
the picture itself. 



AUXILIARY VERBS 

To Be, to Exist.— Hold the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand pointing upward, against the mouth ; move the whole 
hand, finger still held upright, forward straight out from 
the mouth; then bring the "A" hands together, the end of 
the right thumb resting on the nail of the left thumb, and 
move both hands this way forward. (Note : This is the present 
and acceptable way to make this sign though formerly there 
were other signs. These are not here given, as it seems un- 
necessary.) The usual way is to make simply the first part 
of the sign with the forefinger, and then finish with "now" 
or "past" to indicate tense, and "many" to indicate plural. 
1,1. 

To Be, infinitive and imperative.— Hold the right "G" 
hand straight out in front from the side, the "G" up; crook 
the forefinger and move the hand toward the left side hori- 
zontally in front of the body. I, 2. 

To Be, auxiliary of the passive voice. — Press the forefinger 
of the right "G" hand, pointing upward, against the mouth; 
then bring both open hands, palm toward palm, pointing up- 
ward, to the side of the face and throw each back over the 
corresponding shoulders, letting the thumbs strike against 
and come to rest on the shoulders. 

Can, expressing possibility, power, etc. — Hold the "S" 
hands out in front, elbows against sides, and let the hands 
drop a little way with a jerk. I, 3. 

Can't. — Holding the left "G" hand out in front, strike the 
end of it with the forefinger of the right "G" hand, as if 
cutting it off, and letting the right hand continue down. I, 4. 

May, Maybe, Perhaps, indicating probability. — Hold out 
both open hands in front straight from the sides, palms up; 
balance the hands up and down alternately several times 
like the balances of a pair of scales. I, 5. 

May, indicating permission. — Hold both open hands out 
in front straight from the sides, pointing downward; with a 
forward motion throw the hands out till they point forward. 
1,6. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 15 

Should, Ought, indicating duty. — Press the crooked fore- 
finger of the right "G" hand against the lips and then move 
toward side and downward as in "must" (see below). Or, 

(2) Indicate by the signs "better" and "must." Better 
is signed as follows : Place the end of the right open hand 
pointing toward the left, palm against the mouth ; draw away 
towa rd the side, assuming the position of "A" and lifting it 
to a level with the head. "Must," see below. 

Must, Need, Have to. — Crook the forefinger of the right 
" G " hand, pointing it downward, and press the hand down 
some distance with more or less force. Sometimes the motion 
is repeated several times. I, 7. 

Have, to Possess. — Cross the open hands in front, palms to 
self and then draw them up against the breast. I, 8. 

Have, Finished, auxiliary of the complete tenses. — Hold the 
left "B" hand in front, palm to self and end pointing toward 
the right; upon its upper edge place the right "B" hand, 
pointing out, and the little finger edge resting on the forefinger 
near the knuckle ; scrape along the edge of the left hand with 
the right, and when the end of the left hand is reached, let 
the right drop down directly with a "chopping off" motion. 
The usual way is to give only the right hand a downward 
"cut" across the end of the left. 

Note : The colloquial and by far the most common method 
of rendering the sign for "finished" is to hold the right open 
or " 5 " hand out in front from the side and give it a flip toward 
the right, with a twist of the wrist so the palm is turned down. 
In indicating the complete tenses first sign "have" as for 
"possess," then give the sign for the verb, and last the sign 
for "have" or "finish" as above. I, 9. 

Do. — Hold the bent hands out in front from the sides, fin- 
gers pointing downward; move the hands first to one side 
and then to the other, giving them a slight downward pres- 
sure as they start toward the side. The fingers may be slightly 
separated as in the bent "5" hands, as in playing the keys 
of a piano. I, 10. 

Will and Shall, indicating future. — Hold the right open 
hand pointing straight out and elevated to a level with the 
shoulder, and push it straight, forward the length of the arm. 
1,11. 



16 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Won't. — Holding the right "S" hand out in front from tie 
side, jerk the hand back, doubling the elbow. I, 12. 

The tense signs are as follows: For the present, same as 
"now," i. e., Hold the open or bent hands, in front, from the 
sides, palms up, and drop them both at the same time with a 
slight jerking motion. The past is indicated by throwing the 
right open hand back over the right shoulder, palm backward. 
The future is indicated by "will" (see above). In making the 
sign for any verb the tense sign is rarely given unless essential 
to make it specific. Usually the tense is understood by in- 
ference. I, 13, 14, 15. 



PERSONAL, RELATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

I. — Place "I" hand, thumb against breast and little finger 
pointing up. 

You, Thou. — Point forefinger at person addressed. 

You (plural). — Point forefinger and draw around in semi- 
circle from right to left or vice versa. 

Me. — Point the forefinger at centre of one's own breast. 
(Touch self with forefinger.) 

We, Us. — Point forefinger at self, then point out, bring 
round in circle as in "You," and back to self. II, 16. 

My and Mine. — Press open hand, palm against breast to 
indicate possession. 

Your and Yours. — Push open palm toward the person or 
persons addressed. This sign is also used to denote posses- 
sion, the hand being pushed toward the possessor. 

He. — Make forehead sign for "male;" then extend "G" 
hand toward an imaginary person. 

She. — Sign for "female" and extend hand as in "he." 

They. — Make sign for "male" and female;" then, as be- 
fore, in "he" and "she." Or, 

(2) Sometimes the sign is made by indicating "male" and 
"female," then making, sign for "both." 

It. — The "I" hand is moved toward an imaginary object 
with a twisting motion of the wrist. 

His, Her, Hers, Theirs. — Make sign for pronoun and then 
add possessive sign, i. e., push open palm toward imaginary 
person. 

Self (emphatic). — The position and movement of the hand 
is similar to that in "him," "her," etc., but is made in an 
emphatic way or with great force. 

Self (reflexive). — The "A" hand is held with points of the 
fingers against the speaker. 

Myself. — With the hand in position of making "A" strike 
the thumb against center of breast and repeat several limes. 

Himself, Herself, Themselves, etc — Make sign for pronoun 
and then add sign for self. 



18 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Who. — Purse the lips as in pronouncing "who," then point- 
ing the forefinger at the mouth, a few inches away, move the 
end of the finger around in a circle. As interrogative, express 
inquiry on face or make " ?" in air with forefinger. II, 18. 

That (as a relative), Which.— Place left hand in position 
of making "L" in front of you, pointing toward the right; 
place end of right forefinger on end of left, and then turn it 
up and back to touch the thumb, thus indicating the fact that 
it refers to an antecedent. II, 19. 

That (demonstrative pronoun).— Make "Y" with the right 
hand, and holding left hand out, palm up, throw the "Y" 
upon it; the sign may be without throwing "Y" upon the 
left hand but holding the "Y" of cither hand out a little way, 
give a slight jerking or throwing motion to the hand at the 
wrist, toward imaginary object, moving the arm the least bit. 
II, 20. 

Note : This is a very useful sign and is used to designate 
the identical person or thing spoken of, previously referred 
to; and it may be interpreted to mean "just so," "that's it," 
"the same," and takes the place of an habitual expression 
used as an interposition by one listening, to encourage the 
speaker, or denote interest in what is being said. 

Whom. — Same as "who" but is sometimes expressed by 
"who" followed by the sign for the demonstrative "that," or 
the sign for "him," omitting the male sign. 

Whose. — Sign for "who" followed by possessive sign. 

What. — Hold left hand in front of you, with palm toward 
you, fingers pointing to right and held apart; place the end 
of the right forefinger on that of left forefinger, and then 
draw it down across the other fingers. Or, 

(2) Hold right forefinger poised at a slight angle, then 
shake it from side to side as in shaking a rattle. 

Note: The first sign is preferable; when used as an inter- 
rogative, express inquiry on the face or make a question mark 
in the air. 

Whatever, Whoever, etc.— Make sign for desired pronoun, 
then add sign for "any." 

Any.— Place "A" hand over toward left side and draAv it 
quickly over to the right side, the while giving it an ague-like 
shaking motion. II, 21. 

Anything. — Usually made the same as "any." Or, 

(2) Make sign for "any" and add "thing." 



a Manual of signs 19 

Thing. — Hold open hand in front of you as if holding some- 
thing between thumb and fingers; hand pointed toward the 
left; drop the hand slightly, repeating the motion as the hand 
is drawn back toward the right side. 

Any one. — Same as for "any," then add sign for "male" 
or "female." II, 17. Or, 

(2) Hold forefinger pointing up, back of hand down, fin- 
gers and thumb closed over palm, move hand from side to side. 

Some. — Draw the right open hand toward you across the 
end of the left open hand, hold palm up, describing a curved 
mark on the palm with the little finger edge. 

Some one. — Same as for "any one." 

Something. — Sign for "some" and "thing." 

Every. — Place left "A" hand in front of you, the end of 
the thumb pointing out; with right "A" hand and a striking 
motion bring backs of the fingers of right hand down or 
against the back of the thumb of the left; repeat this motion 
with thumbs pointing first at one and then another imaginary 
person in a short semi-circle. (Some might add sign for "all.") 
II, 23. 

Each. — Same as "every" but add "1." 

Both. — With the left hand, grasp the right "V" hand at 
the back of the fingers and draw the "V" down and out, as 
you close the left hand upon them. 

Such. — Make sign for "same" (with forefinger of each 
hand extended straight out, bring them together in front of 
you, parallel); then sign for "that" as demonstrative pro- 
noun. 

Either. — Close left hand, except thumb and forefinger 
which are extended and pointed upward, or inclined slightly 
toward self; touch first the thumb and then the forefinger 
with the forefinger of the right hand; bring both "A" handy 
away opposite each other, lowering and raising them alter- 
nately like a see-saw, to indicate "one or the other." II, 24. 

Neither. — Same as for "either," but prefix or follow with 
sign for "not," i. e., passing open right palm across open left 
hand, both turned downward, or raise "A" hand to chin and 
throw downward. 

None.— Make sign for "any one" then "nothing" (lift "0" 
to mouth without touching, then quickly throw it off; in the 
meantime open the hand and throw out the fingers). 



20 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

This. — Simply point to an imaginary object near you. For 
"These" jioint to several imaginary objects. 

That. — Point to a distant imaginary object, and for "Those" 
point to several. (See "That," demonstrative, above.) 

Other. — Position of hand as in "A," thumb well up; with 
a motion including the whole forearm, describe a semicircle in 
the air with the end of the thumb. For the plural, repeat two 
or three times, or add sign for "many." II, 25. 

Another. — Made in the same way, but "1" is sometimes 
added. 

Few, Several. — Extend, ■ or straighten the fingers of the 
right "A" hand one at a time, beginning with the forefinger. 

Many" — Double the fists in front of you, backs down ; throw 
the fingers out and apart quickly. Repeat this motion two or 
three times. 

More. — Hold the left hand with thumb and fingers gathered 
together at a point and the ends pointing upward ; from the 
side lift the right hand, thumb and fingers gathered as in the 
left, and place it upon the left hand so that the ends of the 
fingers meet, those of one hand pointing up and those of the 
other down. II, 26. Or, 

(2) Hold out open left hand, palm toward right; against, 
the palm throw the right "&" hand two or three times. Or, 

(3) Make the sign for "many" and raise the right "A" 
hand higher than the left. 

Most. — Make the sign for "many" or "more;" then the 
indication of the superlative with right "A" raised high above. 
IT, 27. 

All. — Bring the hands out easily, and after touching them 
at the forefingers, bring them around in a circle as if to in- 
clude the whole. Commonly the left hand is at rest, held at 
a slight angle, and the right hand alone describes the circle 
coming to rest in the palm of the left hand. II, 28. 

Divers, Various, to indicate Different Objects. — Place the 
ends of the forefingers, one above the. other, nails up, and held 
at an angle of 45 degrees, and rest of the fingers and thumbs 
closed; bring the forefingers apart, giving them a shaking 
motion up and down. 

One Another.— Hold the left "A" hand, thumb pointing up, 
and the right "A" hand, thumb pointing down; rotate the 
thumbs around each other. II, 30. 



MANKIND AND RELATIONSHIP 

There are two distinguishing signs for sex, and these signs 
are prefixed to the sign of the person or persons signified. 
They are as follows : 

Male. — Eaise the hand to the forehead as if about to grasp 
the rim of the hat ; go through the grasping motion as the 
hand reaches the forehead and is placed against it instead of 
out where the rim of the hat would he. The grasping motion 
is usually repeated several times with the hand held against 
the forehead. Ill, 31. 

Female.— Lift the "A" hand to the side of the jaw ju;t 
behind the ear, so that the thumb touches the jaw; draw the 
hand down so that the end of the thumb passes along the 
under edge of the jaw bone until it reaches the chin. Ill, 32. 

Man. — The sign for "male" is usually sufficient, but to be 
exact the hand is then brought out indicating a man's height. 

Woman. — The sign for "female" likewise is sufficient for 
"woman," but the height is also indicated. 

Boy. — Sign for "male;" then indicate size. 

Girl. — Sign for "female;" then indicate size. 

Gentleman. — Sign for "male;" then bring the "5" hand 
down and with the ends of the fingers pointing up and the 
hand at right angles with the body, strike the thumb against 
the breast. Ill, 33. 

Lady. — Sign for "female" and finish as in "gentleman." 

Father. — "With fingers closed and thumb extended, place 
thumb at the right side of the forehead and at right angles 
to it ; with a slightly twisting motion, bring hand away, open- 
ing fingers and turning palm upward; at the same time bring 
the left hand up similarly and place parallel to the right as 
if lifting up a babe. Ill, 34. 

Mother. — Starting with the sign for "woman" bring hands 
in same way as for "father." TIT, 35. 

Note: There is also a common sign for "father" made by 
merely placing hand as indicated and then opening finger*, 
keeping the thumb at forehead. In the case of mother, the 



22 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

thumb is left at the end of the jaw near the chin and the fin- 
gers opened. 

Son. — Sign for "male;" then rest the hand on the left fore- 
arm or wrist, palms of both hands up. Ill, 36. 

Daughter. — Sign for "female;" then same as in "son." 

Grandfather.— Sign for "father;" then with a slight twist 
ing motion, raise both hands the second time and a little higher 
as if to represent a generation up. Ill, 39. 

Grandmother. — Sign for "woman;" then bring hands in 
position as for "grandfather." 

Brother. — Sign for "man;" then bring both hands together 
in front of you, the forefingers extended parallel, pointing 
outward, with the rest of the fingers closed. Ill, 37. 

Sister. — Sign for "woman;" then same as "brother." Ill, 38. 

Father-in-Law.— Sign for "father" and then "law." "Law" 
is signed as follows : Hold left hand in front of you perpendicu- 
larly, fingers together, extended parallel, pointing; throw the 
forefinger of the right "G-" hand against the palm of the left. 
Ill, 40. 

Mother-in-law.— "Mother" and "law." 

Brother-in-law.— "Brother" and "law." 

Sister-in-law. — "Sister" and "law." 

Uncle. — Place the letter "U" at the side of the head, near 
the temple, and draw it downward the least bit with a wavy 
motion. 

Aunt. — Place letter "A" opposite jaw as when making sign 
for "woman" but not touching; then same motion as in 
"uncle." 

Cousin (male). — Letter "C" side of head as in "uncle;" 
give same motion. 

Cousin (female).— Letter "C" same position as for "aunt" 
and give same motion. 

Nephew. — Letter "N" in front of forehead and same motion. 

Niece. — Letter "N" at side of right jaw and same motion. 

Baby. — Indicate with arms the act of holding or swinging 
a baby in the arms. 

Marry. — Clasp the palms of the hands together. Ill, 41. 

Husband. — Si<;n for "male;" then "marry." 

Wife — Sign for "female;" then "marry." 

Note: The idea of celibacy is indicated by "no marriage" 
or "old one." Bachelor is signed by making sign for "male" 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 23 

and then "old, one," the "one" being moved straight out 
a little way. Old Maid is indicated by female sign and then 
as for "bachelor." Old is signed by placing the right "C" 
hand against the chin, closing it to "S" and drawing it down 
like pulling a beard. 

Home.— Place the end of the right "&" hand at the 
mouth as in "eat;" then carry it to the right side of the 
cheek. Ill, 42. 



SENSATIONS, FEELINGS AND AFFECTIONS 

Love. — Press both hands over the heart, flat, one upon the 
other. IV, 43. 

Hate. — Hold the open hands out toward left side, ends 
pointing up; push hands away and avert face as if pushing 
off some unpleasant object. IV, 44. 

Like. — "With the rest of the fingers closed, bring the thumb 
and forefinger up nearly touching the breast, then draw them 
away, bringing thumb and finger together as if the heart 
was being drawn out toward the object. The sign for "please" 
is also used to mean "like." IV, 45. 

Dislike. — Extend the hands up partly at one side, with mid- 
dle finger held back by the thumb, the other fingers extended 
and pointing outward ; suddenly shoot off the middle finger 
as in shooting a marble or the game of crokinole. This sign 
is more for "despise." "Dislike" is also made by sign for 
"like" followed by "not." IV, 46. 

Make love to. — Hold the closed hands, the middle joints of 
the fingers of one against those of the other, thumbs up, in 
position of "A" except that the}- are raised above the fore- 
fingers and bent from the middle joint; wiggle both thumbs 
up and down. This sign is also used to indicate the individual 
object of one's affections, followed by sex sign. IV, 47. 

Fall in love. — "With right hand in position of "V" but 
fingers pointed down, throw the two fingers against the palm 
of the left hand brought out to receive them, palm up, and then 
slide them along the length of the hand. The heart is some- 
times touched with the middle finger first. 

Flirt. — Extend out both "5" hands, palms down, and ends 
of thumbs meeting; wiggle the fingers with motion as in 
playing a piano. 

Please, Pleasure, etc. — Rub the palm of the right hand over 
the heart with circular motion. IV, 48. 

Happy, Delighted, Joy, etc.— Throw palm of the right hand 
against the heart several times with a patting motion. IV, 49. 

Cheerful (as to countenance.) — Place ends of forefingers at 
corners of the mouth and draw out to represent the mouth 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 25 

broadening in smiles, then briny the hands away with the 
lingers moving from the knuckles in a rapid up-and-down 
motion to indicate the "beams of joy" radiating from the 
face, and look as cheerful as you can. 

Sorry, Sorrow, etc. — "With the hand in position of "A" rub 
it in a circular motion over the heart, with appropriate ex- 
pression. IV, 50. 

Sad, Sadness, Dejected, Gloomy 1 , etc. — Hold the hands in 
front of the face, fingers extended and apart, and pointing up ; 
bring the hand down a little way with a jerk and bend the 
head slightly over as the hand falls, indicating a dejected 
attitude. IV, 51. 

Feel. — Place end of the middle finger, with others extended 
and held away, against the heart and draw it up a little way. 
IV, 52. 

Taste. — Place the finger on the tip of the tongue as in act 
of tasting. 

Hear (idea of sound). — Place finger at ear as if listening. 

See (idea of vision). — With hand as in "V" bring the fin- 
gers (forefinger and middle) up astraddle the nose with the 
ends on the face just below the eyes; move the hand outward, 
the ends of the fingers representing direction of the sight. 
IV, 53. 

Look. — Same as "see," but instead of moving hand as above 
turn the "V" and point ends of fingers outward. IV, 54. 

Smell. — Move the palm up before tip of nose, as if present- 
ing something to be smelled. 

Sick. — Place the end of the right middle finger (with others 
extended and held away) on the centre of the forehead and 
that of the left hand at the pit of the stomach, and bend 
slightly over, as if in some distress. IV, 55. 

Well. — Place hands, one on each side of the breast, palms 
toward you ; close the hands as you draw them away and move 
them down with a jerk. IV, 56. 

Pain. — Place hands in front of you with only forefingers 
extended and pointing toward each other several inches apart, 
then throw them at each other without touching the ends 
together; pain in any part of the body in indicated by placing 
the hands over that part of the body and making the motion ; 
for instance, in headache the fingers are thrown at each other 
across the forehead. 



26 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Cross. — Place the hand, pointing upward before the face, 
palm to it; bend the fingers toward face like the talons of an 
eagle, repeating motion several times, and add meaning by 
expression of the face. IV, 57. 

Angry. — With the lingers bent, talon-like, throw hand 
against the waist, partly at one side; give a tearing, upward 
motion against the body. Sometimes both hands are used. 

Quarrel. — Hold the "G" hands out in front of you, fore- 
fingers pointed one toward the other; throw fingers at each 
other, and repeat several times, or let ends of fingers drop, 
and draw up again, imitating motion of roosters fighting. 
IV, 58. 

Fight. — Throw the fists against opposite sides of the face 
at the same time. 

Sweet (including size, form, etc., as well as taste). — Draw 
the ends of the fore and middle fingers, held together down- 
ward, across the center of the mouth. Used in connection 
with "smell" this means fragrant, etc. IV, 59. 

Sour. — Throw the end of the forefinger toward or against 
the mouth, giving the expression of the face as if tasting some- 
thing sour. IV, 60. 

Bitter. — Made same way as for sour, then turn hand away 
and push palm out as if pushing away bitter medicine. 

Friend, Friendship, etc. — Clasp the forefingers, one above 
the other, then bring them apart and clasp them again, but in 
the opposite direction, the hands changing their relative posi- 
tions. IV, 61. 

Enemy. — Draw the hands up, the right close to the body, 
forefinger extended and pointing away from you, and the 
other hand with forefinger in similar position but opposite 
and pointing toward the right finger; then draw both hands 
away, holding them momentarily in a menacing attitude. 
IV, 62. 

Kind, Gentleness, etc. — Place both extended hands in front 
of you, palms toward you, one hand beyond the other a few 
inches; move hands one around the other in a circle like cars 
in a Ferris wheel. IV, 63. 

Cruel, Rude, etc.— Bring both "G" hands out in front, fore- 
fingers extended, throw the end of the one against the other 
lengthwise, alternately pushing and drawing them the length 
of the fingers, repeating several times. The degree of cruelty 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 27 

may be indicated by the emphasis put on the movement. IV, 64. 

Mean. — Place the "A" hands together in front of you, the 
middle joints of each hand touching; now raise the right hand 
slightly; bring it down quickly against the left so the joints 
strike those of the left hand, something after the manner of 
striking flint. For shameful meanness rub hand against the 
side of cheek first, as in "shame." IV, 65. 

Tired, Weary, etc. — With the hands extended downward, 
place the ends against the waist in front about six inches 
apart; bend the hands down, the ends still against you, until 
the hands are doubled over and then let them drop down in 
a listless sort of way and stoop the shoulders slightly, giving 
the idea of weariness. IV, 66. 

Tedious. — Place the end of the forefinger on the tip of the 
nose and press it down, bending the head forward slightly 
as if in obedience to the pressure of the finger. 

Funny, Humorous, etc. — Rub the nose downward with the 
ends of the fore and middle fingers two or three times and 
look funny. IV, 67. 

Contempt, Scorn, etc. — Eest the crook of the forefinger 
against one side of the mouth, and the thumb against other 
(somewhat like "C" pressed against mouth), then bring 
down and represent action of shooting marble from end of 
finger. 

Snub (or turn up one's nose at). — Grasp end of nose with 
thumb and forefinger, and turn up end of nose, bringing hand 
away from nose in the act. 

Indifference (all the same to me). — Place bent left hand in 
front, fingers pointing up ; brush the ends of fingers of left hand 
with the right open hand, first one way with palm and then 
back with back of hand, and repeat several times. IV, 68. 

(2) Or, with right "Y" hand, fingers on under side and 
fingers pointing outward, give it a slight jerk and down 
(as in "the same"); then repeat the action but throw the 
hand over toward the left, indicating it is "the same" both 
ways. 

To cut or ignore one. — Holding the hand perpendicularly 
and at right angles to the face, rub the forefinger, edge upward, 
against the end of the nose, indicating a "stiff neck." 

Fascinate. — Bring the hand up before the face, with fingers 
extended except the thumb and forefinger which are brought 



28 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

together as if about to grasp something; bring them nearly 
together and then draw out slowly from the face (giving the 
idea of drawing the attention out), giving the face an intent 
or concentrated look. 

Free, Safe, Save, Relief, etc. (idea of freedom from some 
bondage). — With "S" hands crossed at the wrists as if bound, 
with an apparent effort break the imaginary bonds and free 
the hands, throwing them apart. IV, 69. 

Obey (idea of submission to authority). — Hold "A" hands 
in front, backs down; let both hands drop, opening them the 
while ; some carry the hands up toward right shoulder and 
drop from there. IV, 70. 

Disobey (defiance to authority). — With elbow at side bend 
up the arm with the fist on a level with the shoulder; bring 
the elbow out and give a twist to the fist, slightly turning the 
head to indicate defiance. IV, 71. 

Pride. — With fingers closed and thumb extended bring end 
of thumb against the front of body about the waist line and 
with chest thrown out proudly draw the thumb up to the 
center of the breast. IV, 72. 

Vain. — Bring both " V " hands in front of and slightly abov;- 
the shoulders, one on each side ; the ends of the fingers pointing 
a little back ; bend the fingers simultaneously so that they 
point directly over the shoulders; then straighten, making 
the motions alternately. IV, 73. 

Victory, Triumph, etc. — Raise the "A" hand and swing it 
in a circle above the head (at the side) as in waving a small 
flag. 

Hope, Expect (something looked forward to with desire). — 
Place end of right forefinger on center of forehead; extend 
left hand out and up at an angle of about 45 degrees, palm 
up; now bring right hand away from the forehead and place 
it palm down just above the bend of the elbow; bend the 
right hand down and at the same time the left up and repeat 
several times with a kind of beckoning motion. Or move the 
fingers of both hands in same position as above with a shaking 
motion like playing the keys of a piano. IV, 74. 

Wait. — Extend the left arm out a little away from the sid*?, 
palm up; bring the right hand in the same position " tandem "- 
wise, so the arm rests across the body ; work the fingers as in 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS. 29 

playing a piano or a stringed instrument, only have the fingers 
pointing up. IV, 75. 

Wish, want (something desired). — Hold the hands straight 
out but elbows resting against the sides ; hold the palms up, 
fingers slightly bent like the claws of an eagle ; bring the elbows 
back, and hold hands as if drawing something toward you. 
IV, 76. 

Not to want, Don't want. — Hold hands in similar position, 
but instead of drawing back turn the hands upside down as if 
dropping out whatever might be in them. IV, 77. 

Wonder, Astonishment. — Throw the extended hands, up in 
amazement. IV, 78. 

Surprise.- — Close the thumb and forefinger of each hand, the 
rest of the fingers also closed; place them directly in front oil 
the eyes (one at either eye) ; suddenly open thumbs and fore- 
fingers, representing motion of- opening the eyes suddenly and 
show look of surprise. V, 79. 

Satisfied. — With a slightly upward motion draw the middle 
finger across the heart (feel) and then raise the hand till it 
strikes the back under the chin. V, 80. 

Contented (in sense of relief from anxiety). — Middle finger 
drawn upward across heart (feel); then bring both hands 
up, palms down, edge of forefingers against breast, ends touch- 
ing; draw the hands down while still held against the breast, 
as if pressing the disturbed feeling down. V, 81. 

Dissatisfied, Discontented, etc. — Place the palm against the 
breast and then shake the body with a twisting motion several 
times, or make sign "satisfied" and "not." 

Peace. — Clasp -hands (shake hands with yourself), then turn 
them over and repeat in opposite direction; then bring hands 
away from each other, palms down, as if stroking something 
on either side in opposite directions. V, 82. 

Excited. — Bring both middle fingers against the body at 
the front, one on either side, and draw first one then the other 
upward against the body and repeat, moving the hands alter- 
nately, assuming a nervous manner. 

Endure, Suffer (bear or carry a burden). — Press the fore- 
finger against the lips; then move hands up the shoulder as 
if holding the end of something resting thereon; bring the 
shoulders and hands forward a little simultaneously as if 



30 . THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

carrying a burden. Some place the thumb in position of letter 
"A" against the lips instead of the forefinger. V, 83. 

Pity (feel sorry for). — Draw the middle finger upward 
against the heart (feel), and then bring the open hand out 
extended toward the imaginary object of pity, making a 
kind of stroking or circular motion with the hand, as if giving 
comfort. V, 84. 

Earnest, Zealous, Industrious (giving the idea of enthusiasm 
manifested toward object at hand). — Rub the open hands 
together in an enthusiastic way, a slow or rapid manner in- 
dicating the degree of earnestness. V, 85. 

Scare, Frighten, etc. — Bring the "V" hands out to the front 
and side with ends of fingers and thumb held together; throw 
the hands toward the front of the body, and open them sud- 
denly so the palms will strike flat and the ends of the hands 
come about together, and with wide-open eyes exhibit fright- 
ened look. V, 86. 

Fear. — Throw the hands up as if warding off impending dan- 
ger, and shrink back. V, 87. 

Blush. — Draw the end of the forefinger down across the 
lower lip to indicate the red color; bring the hand with thumb 
closed against ends of fingers up to the side of the cheek, then 
holding it easily against the cheek suddenly throw out the 
thumb and fingers to indicate diffusion of color. V, 88. 

Embarrassed, Bashful, Confused, etc. — Draw forefinger 
down over the lower lip to indicate color (red), then placing 
the hands one at the side of either cheek but away from them, 
push them upward in a shaky motion till the ends are on a 
level with the top of the head, indicating confusion. 

Shame. — Place the backs of the fingers of one hand against 
the cheek; bend head slightly against them; draw the fingers 
up against the cheek, and straighten them with a motion of 
throwing the hand off toward the person shamed. To indicate 
self shame, place hands in same position, but draw the fingers 
against the cheek with a twisting motion, and do not let it 
leave the cheek, but draw the head back a little as if indicating 
a shamed feeling. To express "shame on you," the hand is 
thrown toward the person in an emphatic way while the eyes 
condemn. V. 89. 

Warm. — Hold the bent hand up to the mouth as if to blow 
into it; with a slightly upward motion bring the hand away 
slowly and bring the fingers open, one by one. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 31 

If reference is had to the weather or atmosphere, draw the 
forefinger (crooked) across the forehead. V. 90. 

Hot. — Bring the hand up to the mouth with fingers crooked 
as if ready to take something from it ; suddenly draw it away 
and turn it over as if dropping something from it in haste. 
Excessive summer heat is indicated by. same sign as for warm 
(drawing forefinger across forehead) made with a good deal 
of emphasis. 

Cold. — Draw elbows up at side with fists against the body 
and shake the arms and fists. V. 91. 

Humble. — Bring the "B" hand up to the mouth, placing it 
perpendicularly edgewise against the lips ; draw the hand down 
along the center of the breast and outward toward the side, 
bending the head in humility. 

Don't care. — Place tips of "and" hand on forehead, bring 
away to one side and throw down with a jerk, opening the 
hands. V, 92. Or, 

(2) Place the end of the forefinger on the end of the nose; 
bring it away partly to one side and throw down toward the 
ground. 

Note: This is a rather objectionable slang sign but much 
used to designate lack 'of interest in, announcement that one 
will have nothing to do with, and to say that one does not 
want anything to do with. 

Ambitious (anxious to put oneself forward). — Place the back 
of the thumb of "A" hand against breast, and with a more or 
less strong motion bring the hand up and outward, giving the 
body a sympathetic motion to indicate pushing oneself for- 
ward. 

Note: The same sign with a wilful expression of countenance 
and movement of the head is sometimes made to indicate wil- 
fulness. The hand is held more firmly against the breast indi- 
cating "self." 

Engagement (in sense of a promise binding one, contract) . — 
Bring the left "S" hand out with back of hand up; bring the 
right "A" hand out toward it, and, describing a small circle 
with the right hand, bring the right wrist down on the top of 
the left wrist and rest as if the hands had become tied together. 
When it is wished to indicate a betrothal, with the thumb and 
forefinger of the right hand grasp imaginary ring on left ring 
finger, then make sign for an engagement. Sometimes the 
sign for "promise" precedes the sign for engagement. 



32 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Jealous, Envy, etc.— Bite the end of the forefinger. To ex- 
press specifically the idea of envy as different from jealousy 
make sign for jealous, look toward imaginary object and make 
sign for want; i. e., reach out hands as if ready to receive 
something, fingers in grasping position upward, and draw 
toward self. V. 93, 94. 

Good-bye. — Place fingers of open hand on the lips and throAV 
out hand as if throwing a kiss. The same sign is used indis- 
criminately to greet one, thank one, and bid farewell; the cir- 
cumstances indicate the meaning. V. 96. 

Hungry- — Bring up hand with fingers and thumb slightly 
bent, the ends against the breast; draw downward, the ends 
of fingers and thumbs against breast, to indicate a gnawing 
sensation. This sign is used to indicate strong desire for any- 
thing when followed by sign for "want." V, 95. 

Feet hurt. — Strike the heart with the end of the middle fin- 
ger of the right "5" hand bent in toward the palm. Some- 
times the hand is withdrawn and "flipped" downward. 

Sympathy. — Make sign for "feel," then by a contraction of 
the sign for agree, bring the hands together as in "with." 

Avaricious. — Scrape the left palm with hand held out with 
the fingers of the right, adding the sign for money — an "itch- 
ing palm." 

Anxious. — The half open left "bent" hand is held breast 
high and the palm scraped by the fingers of the right. Or 
express the idea by a combination of other signs, like "feel a 
strong desire." 

Faith, Confidence, Trust. — Place the end of the right "G" 
finger at center of forehead (or on lips) as in "believe," then 
lifting left open hand outward and upward, hang the right 
hand on it by the end of the fingers. Or, 

Instead of bringing the hands together as described, raise 
both slightly toward the left, upward, with the left higher 
than the right, and make motion of firmly grasping something 
held toward you. 

Patient. — Place the end of the right "G" hand on the lips, 
press and at the same time bow the head as if in resignation ; 
repeat latter motion once or twice. 

Differ, Disagree. — Place the end of the right "G" hand at 
center of forehead as in ""think," then bring the right hand 
down and the left "G" hand up and out toward the left, bring- 
ing the two sharply to a stop with ends of fingers directly 
opposite, that is, pointing toward each other — at "dagger's 
points." 

Belong to. — Link the two "O" hands and add sign of pos- 
session, or "your." 



MENTAL ACTION, LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICA- 
TION OF IDEAS 

Think. — Place the end of the "G" forefinger upon the center 
of the forehead and move it a little with a circular motion. 
VI, 97. 

Understand. — "With the right "G" forefinger bent or crooked, 
bring the back of the nail against the center of the forehead, 
draw the end of the finger upward and out until it is straight, 
describing a parabola. VI, 98. 

Idea.— Place the end of the little finger of the right "I" 
hand against the middle of the forehead ; draw it away and 
give it the least of a circular jerk upward. VI, 99. 

Imagine. — Make a sign as in "Idea," but when finger is 
drawn away, lift it upward in a continuous circular motion. 
VI, 100. Or, 

(2) Place the forefinger against the forehead as in "think" 
and then lift the whole hand upward with the same motion 
two or three times. VI, 101. 

Dream. — Place the end of the forefinger upon the forehead 
as in "think," then draw it away and upward, giving the fore- 
finger a wiggling motion (bending and straightening alter- 
nately, rapidly). The sign for "sleep" may be prefixed. VI, 
102. ' 

Wise. — Crook the right "G" forefinger and lift the hand to 
the forehead ; place the end of the finger at the top of the 
center and move it downward across the forehead. VI, 103. 

Science, or to indicate deep wisdom. — Place the forefinger 
as in "think" or in "wise," hold the left hand out in front 
of you with fingers extended and loosely apart ; bring the end 
of the right forefinger from the head and pierce it through or 
between the fingers of the hand, indicating that the wisdom 
goes down deep. VI, 104. 

Invent. — With the "G" forefinger pointing upward, place 
the end against the middle of the forehead just above the nose 
so the finger almost rests on the length of the nose ; push the 
finger upward till the length of it has crossed the forehead. 



34 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Learn. — Place the open palm of the left hand as if it were 
a book or printed page in front of self; with the other hand 
grasp imaginary knowledge from it with the fingers closing 
against the thumb and raise it to the forehead. VI, 105. 

Believe. — Place the end of the forefinger on the forehead as 
in "think" (some place it on the lips) ; then, bringing the left 
hand up half way to meet it, bring the hand from the forehead 
and clasp both in front of you, palms together. VI, 106. 

Doubt, to express incredulity. — Bring the "V" hand up in 
front of the face with the fore and middle fingers bent toward 
the end of the nose and held as if about to straddle it; bend 
and unbend the fingers several times. VI, 107. Or, 

(2) To express distrust or suspicion of one's intentions — 
Place the fist well out at the side, partly in front, with the 
elbow bent outward; throw the fist toward imaginary person, 
repeating the motion several times. VI, 108. 

(3) To express a wavering' or a doubt as to decision — Cross 
one forefinger over the other and make a see-saw motion with 
it, like a scale beam. Or, 

(4) Hold the "A" hands just out from and below the shoul- 
ders, with elbows raised and pointing outward; let the hanJs 
rise and fall alternately as if they were scale pans. VI, 109. 

Mind. — Tap the head Avith the finger. 

Know, Intelligence. — Tap the forehead with the end of the 
hand. VI, 110. 

Don't know. — Touch the forehead as in "know," then throw 
it outward, turning the hand with a twist of the wrist mean- 
while. VI, 111. 

Ignorant. — Tap the middle of the forehead with the backs 
of the two fingers of the right "V" hand. 

Feebleminded. — Place the ends of the two fingers of the 
"V" hand or fingers of the "5" hand against the forehead; 
push the hands so the fingers bend and unbend several times. 

Crazy. — Place the forefinger of one hand on the forehead 
as in "think," then bring it away, at the same time bringing 
the other forefinger up so the two will point toward each 
other, up and down, and whirl them in opposite directions 
indicating the "wheels in the head." VI, 112. 

Foolish, Silly.— Bring the "Y" hand up with the thumb 
toward the forehead and the little finger pointing out; in that 
position move -it across back and forth from right to left and 
vice versa in front of the forehead several times. VI, 113. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 35 

Note. — This sign, made by throwing the hand rather em- 
phatically once across, is used indiscriminately in the sense 
of absurd, trifling', and to indicate that something receives 
one's disapproval. 

Memorize. — Place forefinger on forehead as in "think;" 
draw it away an inch or so and make grasping motion with 
hand, palm before face. Or, instead of touching forehead with 
finger, place open "C" hand before forehead and end as above. 
VI, 114. 

Forget. — Draw the end of the hand across the forehead, 
turning the fingers in toward the palm as you draAv it from 
the forehead. VI, 115. 

Remember. — Touch forehead with open right hand, bring 
hand doAvn and form "A" with both hands (thumbs extended 
slightly further out) and then place end of right thumb upon 
the top end of the other as if holding it down. VI, 116. 

Inform. — Place right hand as in "know," then carry it away 
as if carrying away information, at some time bring up left 
hand in similar position directly following or parallel with 
right. VI, 117. 

Tell. — Place the forefinger of "G" hand under the lower 
lip, horizontally, then throw it out as if the finger were carry- 
ing words out of the mouth. 

To tell on one, Telltale, Gossip, etc. — Making a bill with 
the thumb and forefinger bring it up with knuckle of forefinger 
against the mouth, slightly at one side ; push it aAvay outward, 
opening and closing the thumb and finger to imitate the move- 
ment of the lips in talking. VI, 118. 

Secret, Don't tell, etc. — Place nail of thumb of "A" hand 
against mouth. 

Be still, Keep quiet, etc. — Place forefinger against lips. The 
idea is made emphatic by throwing the finger violently against 
the lips, and may then be interpreted, "Shut up." 

Quiet, Calm, Still, Noiseless. — Place the forefinger on the 
lips; bring the other extended hand up in front of you, and 
then bring the hand away from the mouth, extended, until it 
is just over the other; then move both aA\ 7 ay in opposite direc- 
tions toward the sides, palms doAvn. VI, 119. 

Talk, Verbal, Speech, etc. — Place forefinger of "G" hand 
under lower lip; horizontally draw it aAvay, giving it a rapid 
circular motion in the air. VI, 120. Or, 



36 THE SIGN LAN (SU AGE 

(2) In sense of conversation. — Hold out both "G" hands in 
front, forefingers pointing upward ; move both hands to one 
side, and then to the other alternately several times or give 
same motion toward the front from self. VI, 121. 

Word. — Make "C" with right hand but close rest of fingers; 
place the ends of the thumb and forefinger of the "C" hand 
on the forefinger of left "G" hand, as if to measure its length. 

Language, Sentence, etc. — Lock the thumbs and forefingers 
of both hands together like the link of a chain; draw them 
apart, giving both hands a chain-like shaking motion, in oppo- 
site directions. VI, 122. 

Explain, Tell about. — With forefingers and thumbs of both 
hands extended, bring their ends all together so that the ends 
lap over a little ; draw them apart and repeat the motion two 
or three times. 

Note. — This sign is used to mean the telling of anything, 
asking for an explanation, and even in asking for a story ; some- 
times for simply a story. VI, 123. Or, 

(2) Describe. — With thumb and forefinger of both hands 
making "0" (other fingers extended) bring them together; 
move one hand out horizontally, bring it back and repeat the 
motion with the other hand and repeat the motion several times. 
VI, 124. 

Sentence. — Make same sign as in language but when the 
hands are brought apart lift them up as if to indicate the be- 
ginning with the left hand and the ending with the right. 

News. — Bring the extended hands out in front of you, point- 
ing toward each other, and then brush the back of the right 
straight across (lengthwise) the palm of the left, and repeat 
once or twice. VI, 125. 

Show. — Raise the left extended hand palm out (as if 
to swear) ; bring end of forefinger of "G" right hand up and 
place it against the center of the palm of the raised hand, then 
push both forward or around as if exhibiting to some one. 
VI, 126. 

Teach. — Raise each of the hands to the corresponding side 
of the head on a level with the eyes; close ends of fingers 
against thumb (as in "&") ; push Hie hands straight out from 
the head, and open the thumb and fingers, as if you had grasped 
something from the head and thrown it out toward some one 
else. VI, 127. 



A MAKT'AL OF SICKS 37 

Intend, Mean, Purpose. — Touch forehead with forefinger; 
then bring hand down and place the ends of the fingers of the 
"V" hand against palm of extended left; lift "U" hand off 
and twist it around, bringing the ends back to the palm but 
with positions reversed; the left hand may be slightly twisted 
around in an opposite way. VI, 128. 

Propose, Offer. — With extended hands close to you in front, 
lift them out and forward as in the act of offering something 
to some one. 

Correct, Find fault.— Touch the tip of the forefinger of "G" 
hand on tip of tongue and then proceed to scratch or cross out 
an imaginary something on the palm of the left extended hand. 

Criticise. — "With the forefinger of the right "G" hand mark 
a cross on the left open palm. 

Find fault. — Draw the forefinger and thumb of right hand 
out of left "0" as if picking flaws out of one's character. 

Refuse. — Hold the "S" hand out with elbow at side; jerk 
the whole arm back with a sudden motion. 

Excuse, Forgive. — Place the end of the right extended hand 
in palm of left extended hand and move it along the length 
of the hand and beyond. In asking forgiveness or one's pardon 
the end of the right hand is rubbed back and forth in the same 
motion, in palm of the left. VI, 129. 

Duty. — Hold the left "S" hand with back up and strike 
right "D" upon it two or three times. 

"Have to," indicating Obligation. — Place both "S" hands 
with wrists one above the other as if bound ; press them both 
downward together. VI, 130. 

Must, indicating Necessity and Need. — Crook the forefinger 
of "G" hand, then turn it so the end points down; push the 
hand downward; the downward motion is often repeated sev- 
eral times. 

Blame. — Place the "A" hand upon the back of the extended 
left thumb end up. To express the idea of accuse, while mak- 
ing the sign extend both hands toward the person who is 
blamed. To acknowledge oneself to blame, bring the sign 
toward you, placing the hands almost against the breast. Inno- 
cence is expressed by making the sign for "blame" and "not;" 
or, as usual, opening the hands and dropping them away from 
the position of the sign. VI, 131. 

Ridicule, Make fun of, etc. — Extend the little and forefinger 
of each hand ; hold the left hand in front toward the side ; 



38 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

bring the end of the forefinger of the other hand up to the 
corner of the mouth and draw it back a little way as if fol- 
lowing the mouth in a smile ; bring the hand away and down, 
somewhat "tandem" to the other, then throw the hands, with 
the forefingers and little fingers pointing, toward the imaginary 
object or person; repeat the last part of the sign several times. 
VI, 132. 

Praise, Commend, Congratulate, Express approbation, etc. — 
Extend left open hand out in front, palm up ; and clap it with 
the open right. The sign for "good" sometimes precedes the 
sign. 

Glory. — Make similar sign as for "praise," then draw the 
right hand away and upward from the left, the while working 
the fingers (of the right only) up and down as if they were 
throwing off scintillating beams of light. 

Can, indicating Ability, Power. — Extend "S" hands forward 
from the sides, thumb ends up with elbows against sides ; bring 
both hands down with a jerking motion. 

The sign for "strong" is very similar. The difference lies in 
the way the hands are moved. For "strength" they are moved 
somewhat sidewise with a slight circular motion. 

Can't.— Extend forefinger of left "G" hand and strike it 
crosswise with a downward stroke of the forefinger of right 
"G" hand, carrying the right hand beyond as if cutting off 
left. 1,4. Or, "can" and "not." 

Note. — The first is colloquial and mq.re commonly used. 

Try. — Hands in same position as for "can" ("S" hands ex- 
tended from sides) then push them forward. VII, 133. 

See, Sight. — Straddle nose with "V" hand held parallel to 
it, placing the ends of fingers under the eye ; push the hand 
away so the ends of the fingers will follow a straight line from 
the eyes. IV, 53. 

Look, Observe. — Hands in same position as for "see;" bring 
the hand away, turning the fingers so that the ends point 
toward the object. IV, 54. 

Appear, Seem, Look like. — Bring the open right hand up 
in front toward one side with the thumb edge toward self; 
turn the hand so as to present the palm toward self and fix 
the eyes upon it. VII, 134. 

Write. — Imitate motion of writing with right hand on left 
extended palm. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 39 

Letter. — Close right hand and extend thumb; wet the palm 
end of thumb on tongue and then throw it against the 
open left hand as if sticking on the stamp. (With end of 
thumb representing a stamp, wet on tongue and stick it on 
open left hand as on a letter). VII, 135. 

Judge, Weigh a thing, Consider, etc. — Place end of finger in 
center of forehead as in "think," then with hands assuming 
"F" position, balance them on either side as if they were the 
two sides of a pair of scales. VII, 136. 

Decide, Determine, Render judgment, Make up one's Mind, 
etc. — After balancing hands as in preceding sign, bring them 
to an abrupt stop exactly opposite. Or touch forehead wi1h 
forefingers, then bring the extended "0" hands down quickly, 
opposite and on the same level. 

Read. — Hold up the open left hand as the page of a book; 
point right "V" finger at the top and then move hand down 
as if following the page with the eyes. 

Study. — Hold open left hand as the page of a book; point 
all fingers of right hand at it ; push fingers toward and draw 
away several times the while they are worked with a vibrating 
motion. VII, 137. 

Dunce. — Knock the joints of the fingers of right "A" hand 
against the forehead. 

Don't. — Hold up the extended right hand, palm outward; 
with arm quiet give hand a vibrating motion from side to side 
several times. 

Postpone, Put off, Procrastinate, etc. — Hold out extended 
"0" hand in front from side; lift slightly, push forward and 
bring down; repeat the motion several times. This sign 
may be made with both hands at the same time. VII, 138. 

Begin, Commence, etc. — Extend left "H" hand palm slightly 
toward you ; with a twisting or boring motion force forefinger 
of right "G" hand through the "H" between the two finger?. 
VII, 139. 

Habit, "Mental slavery." — Forefinger at forehead as in 
"think," then bring "S" hands down, wrists one above the 
other, expressing the idea of the mind or will being bound. 
VII, MO. 

Resemble, Look alike. — Make sign for "appear" and then 
bring forefingers of "G" hands down together, striking their 
sides one against the other as in "same." 



40 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Whisper, Speak privately. — Hold up the open hand, thumb 
edge against one side of the mouth, and incline head slightly 
toward one side. 

Choose, Select. — Hold up left "V" hand and with right 
thumb and forefinger make a motion of picking off first one, 
then the other finger. To indicate that the choice is made, 
indicate by the decisive motion that one of the fingers has been 
selected. , 

Volunteer, Apply (for a place), Run for office, etc. — Catch 
the lapel of the coat (or imaginary lapel) with thumb and fore- 
finger or fingers against the palm, and lift up as if selecting 
and offering oneself for service. 

Trouble, Annoyance, etc. — Raise the right arm at the side, 
hand above head, then bring in a semi-circle down before the 
face ; follow this with similar movement by left hand the other 
way and repeat it with each arm alternately. 

Interrupt, Interfere with, Come between. — Bring left "C" 
hand up with the opening of "C" toward self; throw the right 
open hand edgewise between the thumb and forefinger, re- 
peating several times. 

Answer, Reply, Make response. — Place forefinger of left 
"G" hand perpendicularly in front of you and end of fore- 
finger of right "G" hand on lips; keeping them parallel, or in 
same relative position one higher than the other, throw them 
toward an imaginary colloquist, keeping the arms at rest, 
or only slightly moved from elbow. 

Suspect, Suspicion, Spy, etc. — Place end of forefinger of 
"V" hand held perpendicularly under and against the front 
teeth ; without moving the arms throw the ends of the fingers 
outward, letting the forefinger slip away from the teeth. VII, 
141, or 

(2) Held the crooked forefinger of "G" right hand against 
the forehead and make a scratching motion of the finger 
against the forehead, drawing the finger away from the head 
slightly ; repeat several times. 

School. — Clap the hands together several times as a teacher 
would in calling the attention of his pupils. 

College. — Place the open right hand against the open left 
one held palm up, then lift it up a few inches and, holding it 
flatwise, describe a eircle above the left hand held quietly 
where it is. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 41 

Ask, prefer a request. — Place hands together in front, palms 
together and ends pointing outward; draw hands toward self 
and partly down, giving hands a more perpendicular position. 
VII, 142. 

Pray. — Position of hands same as in preceding, but pointed 
upward in usual attitude of prayer; draw toward self twice 
or thrice. 

Supplication.— Clasp fingers of right hand over "A" left; 
extend upward toward heaven and draw earnestly toward 
you. The same idea is expressed by clasping the hands, fin- 
gers locked, and making same motion. 

Question, To ask a question, To "quiz," etc. — With fore- 
finger of "G" hand, palm side down, move toward imaginary 
person and crook and uncrook it (imitating the motion of a 
worm), repeating the motion several times. VII, 143. 

Examination is sometimes expressed by making sign with 
both hands and all the fingers extended, and hands thrown 
forward as if "charging." 

Call, Attract the attention of. — Hold open left hand out in 
front, palm down and back slightly toward self; strike the 
back with the open right hand and then beckon toward self. 
VII, 144. 

Warn. — Sign for "call" and then hold up finger in warning 
attitude. 

Name. — Extend "H" or "G" hands, throwing the right 
hand fingers crosswise against the left, lifting them and letting 
fall several times. To indicate the action of naming any one, 
or to express that he is called so and so, place the fingers 
crosswise as described, then keeping them in that position, 
raise both hands and extend toward object or person named. 

Promise. — Place forefinger of right "G" hand perpendicu- 
larly against mouth; bring hand down and strike it (open) 
against palm of left. Or, 

(2) In nature of an oath — Place forefinger of "G" hand 
held perpendicularly against lips and then bring hand up as 
in taking an oath. VII, 145. 

Advise, Advice, etc. — Place end of right "&" hand on back 
of left open hand held up in front of you ; lift it away as if 
taking up something with thumb and fingers, and move toward 
imaginary person and open the hand as if throwing what it 
might contain toward the person. VII, 146. 



42 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Mistake. — Throw the middle joints of "Y" hand once or 
twice against chin, so the chin is between the thumb and little 
finger. VII, 147. 

Discuss.— Throw the forefinger of right "G" hand on palm 
of open left (as one often emphasizes his points) and repeat 
several times. 

Argue, Debate. — Eepeat preceding motion first with one 
hand, then the other, to indicate that there are two parties 
to the discussion. 

Agree. — Place end of right "G" hand against center of 
forehead; bring finger down in front pointing out, and bring 
the other forefinger up alongside parallel to it but not touch- 
ing. VII, 148. 

Honor. — Point "H" toward imaginary person; draw hand 
back toward you, lifting the end so that it describes a small 
curve. VII, 149. 

Respect. — Motion similar to above but use letter "R." 

Admire. — Same as "like" but make more slowly and de- 
liberately and add sign of honor. 

Announce, Make known. — Place the forefingers of "G" 
hands held horizontally under the lip, ends toward each other ; 
throw hands out, letting them separate so the ends of the 
fingers describe semi-circles outward. To indicate something 
is published and announced in a newspaper, press hands palm 
upon palm, horizontally to indicate motion of printing, and 
then proceed as above. VII, 150. 

Telegram, Telegraph. — Along the edge of the forefinger of 
"G" hand held in front of you, imitate, with a crooked right 
forefinger, the action of a sender in a telegraph instrument and 
"shoot" along. VII, 151. 

Telephone. — Raise "O" hand to the ear and then move to 
the mouth; or, with the other hand, hold imaginary mouth- 
piece at the mouth and make motion of ringing with right. 

Confess. — Place ends of open hands at breast pointing down- 
ward, palms in; draw up palms and turn them outward, as 
if turning the hands wrong side out. VII, 152. 

Deny. — Hold ends of thumbs of "A" hands up almost touch- 
ing the mouth, and then draw them down and outward with 
emphasis. VII, 153. 

Book. — Open and shut the hands held together as the backs 
of a book. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 43 

Song, Poem. — Hold open left hand out, palm toward you; 
with open right hand pointing toward and at right angles to 
it, wave it back and forth several times. VII, 154. 

Music. — Eaise right forefinger to ear; move "both hands, 
palm down, out toward one side, with vibrating motion; wave 
right open hand back and forth before palm of left hand. 

Picture. — Draw "C" or crooked forefinger downward 
against the face, and then for Photograph, the same, holding 
open left hand up, place "C" against the palm, or just touch 
the bridge of the nose with "C" hand and place on palm as 
before. VII, 155. 

Incline, Disposed to. — Touch the heart with the bent finger 
of the right "5" hand (as in "feel"), then extend the left 
open hand toward the left and bring the right open hand just 
back of it also pointing toward the left; carry both hands 
toward the left, thus indicating the inclination of one's feel- 
ings. 

Reason. — Place the right "E" hand against the center of 
the forehead and give it a twisting turn without moving it 
from its position. 

Religion. — Place the right "E" hand against the heart, 
then raise heavenward. 

Character. — Place the right "C" hand against the heart 
and draw it out a little; or, make the sign for "spirit" and 
then with the two "A" hands indicate the outlines of the 
human form. 

Fool, Hoax. — Place the crooked forefinger of the right "G" 
hand on the nose and give it a pull downward, bringing the 
head down a little. VII, 156. 

History. — Begin making the sign for "happen" over the 
right shoulder and continue making it while the hands are 
brought down from the shoulder to the front of the body. The 
sign for "happen" is made as follows: Place the "G" hands 
parallel in front, thumb up, and twist both at the same time 
inward, bringing the thumb down. In carrying the hands up 
to the shoulder to make the sign they will not be exactly in 
this position, as they will point back and gradually be brought 
down and into the position as described. 

Scold. — Hold the forefinger of the right "G" hand up warn- 
ingly and, resting the right forearm near the elbow on the 
left hand, shake it at the imaginary culprit. 



44 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Evade, Get "around, Avoid. — Holding the left "A" hand in 
front, thumb up, place the right "A" hand in similar position, 
behind it and nearer self; throw the right hand to one side 
and then the other, giving it a twisting motion from the wrist. 

Dumfounded, Confused, At a loss. — Hold the "5" hands 
out pointing down, and then lower them a little with a jerk, 
bringing the body and hands somewhat rigid. 

Exaggerate. — Push the forefinger of the right "G" hand 
upward across the forehead, straight up from the nose, the 
length of the finger; then bring down the "&" hand and let 
the end strike against the end of the left "&" hand pointing 
up; give both hands a turn, reversing their position, and 
drawing them apart now strike the right (which is now point- 
ing up) with the left (which points down). 

Bless.— Hold the "A" hands elevated in front, thumb to 
thumb, but not touching; gradually open the hands to "5," 
drawing them to the sides and downward a little. VII, 157. 




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MOTION AND ACTION 

Note. — In general it may be laid down as a rule that the 
sign for an action should bear some resemblance to the natural 
movement. 

Go, Leave present place, Depart. — Make motion with finger 
or hand away from the body. Also, hold left open hand in 
front, palm toward breast; rest right hand on back of left 
hand, remove, and motion outward. The latter is more cor- 
rectly for "send." 

Leave, Retire, Withdraw oneself. — Extend open hands, 
palms down, out toward the left side, one farther toward the 
left than the other, somewhat "tandem;" draw them bfick 
toward the right side of the body and a little up, bending the 
lingers down from the knuckles. VIII, 158. 

Leave, Lie, Let alone, Neglect. — Hold the open hands out 
toward the left side, palms toward each other, left hand ex- 
tended farther than the other ; push the hands both forward 
toward the side (or front), and stop with a jerk. 

Give. — Bring out hand, make motion as of taking up some- 
thing, and give to imaginary person. 

Get, Obtain. — Eeach out left "S" hand and then make a 
grab upon the top of it with the right. 

Receive, Get (by the speaker). — Make similar motion but 
at the same time draw hands toward you. VIII, 159. 

Catch. — Same as for "get" but make the motion more 
quickly. To catch a ball, represent motion of catching. 

Carry, Bear from one place to another. — Reach open hands, 
palms up, back beyond the right side, the right hand farthei 
out than the left; imagine something having been put in 1he 
hands and carry it to the front of the body and beyond to the 
left side. 

Bring, Convey toward oneself. — Eeach out open hands, 
palms up, as if to receive something; then draw them back 
toward you. 

Climb. — Imitate climbing with the hands, lifting one above 
the other on imaginary tree. 

Drive. — Hold imaginary lines and imitate driving. 



46 THE SlGN LANGUAGE 

Food, Eat.— Throw the "&" hand lightly against mouth and 
repeat several times. 

Feed (act of feeding).— Make sign for "eat" and then mak'; 
motion of giving food. 

Drink. — Make motion of lifting a cup to the mouth, and 
tilting it as in act of drinking. To drink, in sense of habitual 
use of intoxicating liquor, throw the end of the thumb of the 
"Y" hand up against the mouth and repeat several times. 
The hand thus represents the bottle. 

Send. — Place end of right open hand on back of left and 
then throw it off, motioning outward, with "G" hand. VIII, 
160. 

Progress, Motion forward. — Place bent hands in front of 
you, the fingers pointing toward each other; move the hands 
forward with a steady motion. To express the idea that the 
progress is made in successive stages, lift the hands and move 
forward a space, and repeat. VIII, 161. 

Improve, Gradual progress upward. — Hold out left "B" 
hand, forefinger edge up; place the little-finger edge of "B" 
right hand crosswise near end of left forefinger; raise it and 
drop it again on left hand a little farther up, and continue mo- 
tion the length of the hand, and beyond, thus measuring off 
spaces of advancement. VIII, 162. 

Deterioration, DecHine, A falling off, etc. — Make similar 
motion to above, but begin at about the elboAv, arm inclined 
down, and move hand in opposite direction (down). 

Advanced, Higher up. — Place bent hands in front, palms 
down, fingers pointing toward each other; raise the hands; 
if the progress upward is by stages, indicate by lifting the 
hands a small space at a time. VIII, 163. 

Travel. — Pointing the forefinger of the "G" hand out, push 
it outward with a winding or slightly zig-zag motion. Or, 

(2) Move the "G" hand, with the forefinger pointing 
down, in a semi-circle, giving the finger a circular twirling 
motion. 

Cars. — Hold out the left "H" hand, back up; place the right 
"H" flatwise on the knuckle of the middle and forefinger 
of left, then push the right " H " along the other as on a track ; 
repeat the last motion, drawing the right hand back and forth 
several times. VIII, 164. 

Railroad track. — Make sign for "cars," then with hand on 
either side of you indicate width of a rail by opening thumb 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 47 

and forefinger and push the hands along at the side to repre- 
sent the rails. 

Ship. — The thumb and two fingers are held up representing 
the masts of a ship; then move hand so as to point fingers for- 
ward and give hand motion of a ship rising and falling with 
the waves. VIII, 165. 

Walk. — Let the hands represent the feet, and with palms 
down, lift and move them forward alternately as if they were 
feet in the action of walking. 

Ride. — Place the right forefinger and middle finger of one 
hand astride the left "B" hand held edgewise; lift the hands 
and let them fall, imitating motion of horse. 

Wagon. — Place the "G" hands well out, fingers pointing 
toward each other; describe circumference of front wheels 
with the ends of the fingers; bring hands back and repeat for 
hind wheels. 

Carriage. — Same as for wagon, then bring the hands, now 
bent, up above the height of the head and move forward to 
represent the carriage top. 

Lead. — Grasp end of open left "B" hand, held forward, end 
pointing out, with the thumb and fingers of the right, and 
pull forward as in act of leading. 

Push. — Hold the open hands up, palms out, and give an im- 
aginary object a push. 

Run away, Slip away, Leave clandestinely.— Hold out the 
open left hand, palm down; push the right "G" hand under 
it quickly as if following the motion of one getting away 
under cover. Or, 

(2) Hold open left hand as above, but pointing upward at 
an angle of 45 degrees ; throw the right hand across the palm, 
as before but pointing upward. 

Meet.— Hold forefingers of both "G" hands opposite each 
other, pointing upward; bring them together as if they were 
two persons running together. VIII, 166. 

Pass, Meet and pass by. — Make same sign as in foregoing, 
but instead of striking the fingers together let them continue 
beyond each other. Or, 

(2) Pass an examination, Go by, etc. — Hold left "A" hand 
out and right "A" hand a little behind it, thumbs np; push 
the right hand lightly against end beyond the left in a way 
that the thumbs pass parallel. VIII, 167, 



48 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Run. — Hold the open left hand pointing out (edgewise) ; 
hold the open right hand back of it, pointing down ; throw the 
right hand forward rather quickly so the palm brushes across 
the palm of the left. VIII, 168. 

Throw. — Make feint of throwing. 

Swim. — Eepresent action. 

Fly (also wings). — Place ends of open hands on shoulders, 
move out and make motion of wings in flight. 

Stand. — Stand "V" in palm. (Here the fingers represent 
the legs.) 

Fall. — Place hands as above, then let the hand fall over. 

Rise, Get up (from a fall or from a lying posture). — Lay 
"V" back down, in palm of hand, and lift it to a standing 
position. 

Fail, To have one's work fail. — Hold open hands upon a 
level with the chin one above the other; let them fall, rolling 
over each other in the descent. VIII, 169. Or, 

(2) To fail in an attempt, To have one's "pins taken from 
under him." — Stand "V" on the palm; suddenly throw out 
the ends, and let the "V" fall on the palm so the thumb strikes 
it. VIII, 170. Or, 

(3) Throw the back of the right "V" hand against the 
upturned palm of the left hand and slide it along the length 
of the hand outward. 

Succeed. — Place the forefingers of the "G" hand in front 
of you, one above the other and pointed in opposite directions ; 
raise the hands, revolving the fingers around each other. VIII, 
171. 

Accomplish, Win out. — Same position and similar motion, 
but raise the hands quickly and give but one revolution of 
the fingers, and finish with sign for "get." Or, 

(2) Indicative of a continual "getting;" make the sign 
for "get," and repeat it several times while you raise the 
hands together. 

Jump. — Stand "V" in the palm; draw hand back a little, 
bending the fingers as the legs are bent when about to spring; 
throw the hand forward, bringing the fingers out straight. 
Observe that the fingers of "V" imitate the motion of the 
legs in jumping and the hand the body. 

Offer. — Hold out the hands toward imaginary person as in 
act of offering something. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 49 

Accept. — Hold out hands as if ready to receive something; 
then close hands while drawing them back toward you and 
turn ends almost against body. VIII, 172. 

Move, Motion from one place to another. — Eeach hands out 
toward one side, pick up imaginary object with thumb and 
fingers, and lift it over to the other side. 

Meeting, Assembly, Gathering. — Hold out the slightly bent 
"5" hands, well in front at the sides; draw the hands together, 
closing them so the ends of the fingers and thumbs all meet 
together in front of you. 

Play, Recreation, etc. — Hold "Y" hands out in front so 
the "horns" of the "Y" on one hand point toward those on 
the other; shake both hands up and down from the wrists 
repeatedly, moving the forearm, but slightly. The same sign 
when followed by sign for "meeting" is used to signify a 
party. To signify a play at the theater or acting, hold "A" 
hands in front, perpendicular; move up and down alternately. 
The open hand may also be used instead of the "A" hand. 
VIII, 173. 

Take. — Eeach out the hand, grasp imaginary object and 
draw it toward you. 

Copy. — Holding the left open hand as a slate or paper, reach 
out the right "5" hand, close the ends of the fingers and 
thumb as if taking off something from imaginary page, and 
then withdraw hand and place it on left palm. 

Buy. — "With the right hand as if holding money between the 
thumb and fingers place it, back down, in the palm of the left 
and then reach the right hand out as if offering the money to 
some one. VIII, 174. 

Sell. — With thumbs and fingers together, as if holding some- 
thing, lift the hands up in front so the ends will bend from 
the wrists and point down; without moving the arms give the 
hands a shaking motion outward. VIII, 175. 

Owe, To indicate something is due another.— Place the end 
of forefinger of right "G" hand in palm of the left held up- 
ward; in this position move both hands forward toward im- 
aginary person. To indicate the debt is due to oneself, with 
hands in similar position draw thorn toward you. VIII, 176. 

Demand, Require of some one. — Same motion as in last 
sign, but hold the hand well out and throw the end of the 
finger somewhat forcibly on palm, drawing the hand back 



50 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

quickly. Some add motion of forefinger, pointed down and 
drawn forcibly toward self. 

Hesitate. — Hold " G " hand with forefinger pointing upward ; 
move forward, stop suddenly, and repeat motion in a halting 
manner. Some make sign as in "doubt." 

Become. — Hold open hands out, one a few inches above the 
other, palms toward each other ; turn both hands at same time 
so as to reverse their positions. VIII, 177. 

Keep, Take care, Be careful with. — Hold left "V" hand with 
ends of fingers pointing outward, forefinger up. With right 
hand in similar position place it on the other so that the little- 
finger edge of right hand rests on forefinger edge of left and 
all four fingers extend out one above the other (or crosswise) ; 
raise the right hand a little and throw it down again ; repeat 
several times. To indicate great care, move the hands together 
slowly up and down, or giving them a circular motion; throw- 
ing the hands together in this position warningly at one is to 
indicate the idea one had better look out. VIII, 178. 

Find. — Reach out "5" hand; draAv ends of forefinger and 
thumb together as if picking up something, and raise hand. 

Lose. — Place finger nails of bent hands together, back to 
back, so the ends of the fingers point upward ; swing the hands 
down and separate till the fingers come straight. VIII, 179. 

Change. — Hold the "A" hands out opposite one another, 
thumb side up, several inches apart, with a kind of twisting 
motion ; change the position of the hands so the left will come 
over toward the right and the right under toward the left. 
VIII, 180. 

Pick. — Merely represent action of picking something off an 
imaginary bush. 

Select, Pick out. — Eeach out the right hand over left open 
hand and with the thumb and forefinger pick out an imaginary 
object. 

Chase, Follow.— Place the "A" left hand out in front, and 
the right "A" hand directly behind it, thumbs pointed up; 
move both forward tandem fashion. It is usual to give the 
following hand a peculiar twisting motion from the wrist to 
indicate, probably, that it is the one pursuing. To indicate 
a chase more or less hard and long drawn out, indicate by em- 
phatic motion or repeating the sign and twisting both hands 
VIII, 181. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 51 

Work. — Throw right "A" hand down against the left "A" 
hand two or three times so that the lower side of right wrist 
strikes the top side of left wrist. (With both hands in posi- 
tion of "A" throw wrists together.) Same sign followed by 
"much" signifies "busy." VIII, 182. 

Wait on, Serve, etc. — Hold out open hands, palms up, as if 
holding a tray; move hands from side to side simultaneously, 
first in one direction, then the other. 

Distribute. — Bring the closed hands with ends quietly 
touching each other before body ; throw them outward so each 
describes a semi-circle in opposite directions, opening the 
hands, palms up. 

Contribute. — Drop into an imaginary receptacle an imagin- 
ary coin, first with one hand and then with the other. 

Happen. — Bring the "G" hands in front held parallel and 
pointing out with " G " up ; turn the hands with a quick mo- 
tion so that the forefingers twist inward, bringing the backs 
of the hands up. The same sign also signifies "accident." 
IX, 183. 

Make. — Hammer the top of one fist with the other two or 
three times, giving both hands a twisting motion. IX, 184. 

Arrange, Put in order. — Bring the open hands out toward 
the front side, palms toward each other, several inches apart, 
and ends pointing out ; keeping them in same relative position 
move them along in front of you to the other side, giving them 
a slight up and down motion. IX, 185. 

Ready. — Same as above; then sign for "finished." 

Prepare, Get ready. — Express by making sign for "make" 
and "ready;" or, "arrange" and "before." 

Introduce. — Extend one open hand out (palm up) toward 
the front side and the other hand toward the other side and 
then bring the hands toward each other. (Each hand repre- 
sents a person introduced.) The idea of a simple introduction 
may be expressed by using simply one hand. 

Invite. — First touching the left forearm or back of left hand 
with right palm, the hand is extended out toward an imaginary 
person, palm up, and then drawn toward you. 

Attend, Give attention to. — Place the hands at either side 
of the head like blinders on a bridle ; move the hands forward 
to indicate that the sight is to be confined within those limits. 



52 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Appoint. — Keach out the hand toward the side and pick out 
an imaginary person with the thumb and forefinger and lift 
him over to a position in front of you. 

Vote.— With ends of the thumb and forefinger together, 
put them in "0" of other hand. Elect is indicated by making 
sign for "vote" and then "appoint" to indicate the appoint- 
ment was by ballot. 

Graduate. — Hold left open hand out, palm up, and circle it 
with the fist and bring fist on palm (indicating paper with 
seal) and add sign for "retire." 

Steal. — Hold out left hand pointing out edge down; reach 
right hand (or left "A" hand) under wrist, grasp imaginary 
object and draw it back. IX, 187. 

Help, Aid, Benefit, Give assistance. — Place the right open 
hand under left "A" hand and lift it up. 

Support, Uphold. — Similar motion but use the right fist; 
place it under the left forearm and lift as in position of a pillar. 

Sit. — Extend open hands, palms down; push downward. Or, 
place the right "U" hand over the edge of the left extended 
hand, bending the fingers as a bird 's claws when it is perched. 

Rule, Control, Govern, Exercise authority over. — Place left 
"A" hand in front of you is grasping attitude, with back up 
and thumb pointing toward the body; reach out right "A" 
hand from side, open it and extend out and around in semi- 
circle toward left, palm down. IX, 188. 

Stay. — Bring both "A" hands in front and place ends of 
thumbs together, one above the other, and give downward 
pressure of hands together. 

Plant. — Drop imaginary seeds from hand as it is moved 
along. Usually make sign for "seed" first, by closing the right 
forefinger and thumb; strike ends several times along the ex- 
tended left forefinger. 

Sow: — Merely imitate the motion of sowing. 

Grow. — Hold the right "&" hand with finger ends up; 
bring the left hand and close around it so the ends of the fin- 
gers will be just beloAv the "0 ;" push right hand up through 
the "0" as if plant was coming above the ground, and spread 
out the fingers, making "5" hand as they come up through. 
IX, 189. 

Harvest. — Beach out left hand and grasp imaginary stalks 
of grain and with the forefinger of right crooked like a sickle 
make motion of cutting stalks. 



A MANUAL Ob' SIGNS 53 

Mow. — Place right '5" hand on left and imitate motion of 
sickle in mowing. 

Ornament, Adorn, etc. — Place closed hands together so the 
ends of the fingers all meet; separate and put them together 
again, giving both hands a twisting motion, and raising them 
at the same time ; repeat several times. 

Punish. — Holding the left hand out as if holding imaginary 
culprit, bring the right 'G" hand down as if using a switch oh 
him. 

Come. — Make motion as if motioning for some one to come 
to you, using both hands. Or, draw both "G" hands from 
side toward self, fingers pointing toward each other. 

Continue. — Same position as in "stay," but let the motion 
be outward instead of downward, thus showing idea of con- 
tinuity. 

Disappear.— Place the right "5" hand with the fingers 
brought slightly together pointing up so the back rests in 
"C" of the other hand, let the hand slip down through the 
"C" and as it does so close it till when the right hand is 
gone the left hand will be making "0." IX, 190. 

Melt, Fade, Die out, Dissolve, etc.— Hold up both "5" 
hands, fingers pointing up, palms toward you; let the hands 
drop gradually, drawing the ends of the fingers to position 
of "&." IX, 19L 

Live. — Place both "5" hands against the body at waist one 
toward either side, thumbs up ; draw hands upward, remaining 
against the body. IX, 192. 

Breathe. — Place hands on chest, move them out and back 
against body, imitating action of lungs in breathing. 

Die. — Hold out the open right hand in front from the side, 
palm down; give the hand an outward turn, bringing the 
palm up. IX, 193. 

Dead,— Is indicated by "die" and "finished." 

Bury.— Make motion of digging, one hand as a spade ; then 
bring the top edges of the hands together, with them forming 
the mound on a grave. 

Destroy.— Hold out both "5" hands, one above the other in 
front, palms facing; bring the hands together, closing them 
as if grasping something, so when they come together they 
meet closed fingers against fingers; rub the top hand across 
the lower as if grinding or mashing whatever was between to 



54 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

atoms, bring hand back across and finally open both hands 
directly. 

Burn, Fire, Indicating flames.— Hold out the bent hands, 
backs down, raise them alternately, working the fingers to 
represent the motion of the rising and falling flames. IX, 194. 

Decrease, Gradually grow smaller. — Hold the open hands 
out, one down and the other quite a distance above it, palms 
facing; gradually draw the hands toward each other, giving 
them a bellows-like motion. IX, 195. 

Borrow. — Make sign for "Give to me to keep." 

Lend. — "Give you, keep." 

Tease, Persecute.— Push fingers of right "A" hand over 
(lengthwise) the top of thumb in left "A" hand. 

Seek, Look for- -Move "C" in front before the breast or 
face, describing a circle from right to left. IX, 196. 

Collide, "Run up against it." — Hold the hands in front ;>n 
opposite sides, the thumbs and middle fingers bent at the joint 
and held toward each other; bring the hands quickly togethe;: 
so that the fingers come violently together. 

Struggle, Indicating trying to overcome obstacles. — Position 
of hands as they come together as above ; then rub them across 
one way and then the other in effort to push each beyond the 
other. 

Cry. — Place the ends of the forefingers on the face belovv 
the eyes and rub down as if tracing tears. 

Cry out, Yell. — Place the "C" hand at the mouth as if re- 
ceiving the sound; draw away the hand, continuing the mo- 
rion as if drawing the sound out of the mouth. 

Sign, To make signs. — Place the "G" hands in front, o',e 
higher than the other, pointing them upward at an angle of 
45 degrees; move the upper hand from front to back and 
the lower from back to front, bringing each then to original 
position ; the motion of both hands is similar to a braiding 
motion. 

Sign (to sign a document). — Make sign for write, then slap 
the end of the open right hand down in one corner of the palm 
of the other in the place where the name is usually signed. 
IX, 197. 

Stop. — Strike the upward turned palm of the left open 
hand with the lower edge of the right open hand. IX, 198. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 55 

Intercept, Prevent, Check motion or advance. — Hold the 
open hand up, palm toward self, or turn the back toward the 
direction from whence the motion is supposed to proceed, and 
then moving it toward self strike and stop it with the lower 
edge of the right open hand. 

Procession, etc. — Hold the "V" hands front, ends up, one 
behind the other; push them forward, keeping them tandem, 
and repeat the motion several times. 

March. — Place the "4" hands with fingers pointing down, 
one before the other; move the fingers forward, bending them 
in unison from the knuckles and moving the hands but slightly 
forward. The idea is the fingers represent legs keeping time 
together. 

Hurry. — Push "H" hand rapidly forward, giving the "H" 
an up-and-down motion all the time. 

Fast, Quick, Indicating rapidity of motion. — Place the thumb 
and forefinger as if ready to shoot off a marble ; hold up the 
left "B" hand pointing upward; making motion of shooting 
a marble and pass the hand while doing so quickly against 
and across the palm of the other ; sometimes merely the marble- 
shooting motion is made in the air. 

Strike. — Merely strike the palm of one hand with the fist 
of the other. Or,' 

(2) To indicate the striking of a clock tap the forefinger 
against palm, imitating motion of striker. 

North, South, East and West are indicated by moving "N" 
hand toward the north for north, the "E" hand eastward 
for east, and so on for the other directions. 

Deflect, Go off the track, Deviate. — Hold the forefingers to- 
gether parallel, pointing outward, then suddenly turn one 
away and push it out from the other. 

Approach, Motion toward. — Place the partly bent left hand 
in front rather toward the left side, forefinger edge up ; place 
the bent right hand same position, pointing other way, be- 
hind it but several inches back toward right side, and gradu- 
ally let it approach the one in front. IX, 199. 

Arrive, Reach. — Begin motion as above and next let the 
hands go forward and one fall into the palm of the other, and 
then hold the hands forward, palms up. 

Discharge, Expel, Remove from employment. — Hold up the 
forefinger of left "G" hand and with the forefinger of other 



56 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

hand knock it down. Or, hold up left hand similarly and 
knock down. The former sign carries a suggestion of malice 
or vindictiveness. IX, 200. 

Subtract, Take away from, also denoting Absence or Defi- 
ciency. — Hold open left hand with palm toward self; throw 
the ends of the fingers of the other hand with a scratching 
motion downward against the palm of left, drawing it down 
and away from the hand as if taking off something. 

Add, Increase. — Place the "&" hands, one on other, fingers 
meeting; let the right hand rise and fall against the left, lift- 
ing both up meanwhile. 

Cause, Effect, Produce. — Hold the "A" hands up toward 
the right shoulder, thumbs pointing outward; carry the hands 
diagonally across in front of; you and open fingers to make a 
motion of emptying the hands, IX, 201. 

To bear, Bring' forth, Be born. — Place the open hands near 
the body, one palm against back of the other, palms toward 
self and slightly upward; push the hands outward. To indi- 
cate bearing fruit, push right "5" hand up through left, closed 
over it, and let it then drop on the left hand. 

Power, Strength. — Hold out the fists in front from the sides, 
elbows at sides; lift the fists toward the right, and throw 
them over the left with a circular or swinging motion and 
bring them down; keep them in the same relative position as 
to distance and direction of motion all the time. 

Weakness. — Place ends of "V" standing in palm of hand; 
bend the fingers so the hand falls toward the palm. 

Influence, Cause, Effect by force or persuasion. — Place the 
"A" hands out a little, thumbs pointing upward, one well 
in front and the other behind but off at one side; turn the 
hands so that the thumbs finally point outward, moving both 
hands simultaneously. IX, 202. 

Influence, by example.— Hold "A" (left) in front, thumb 
up; place end of "&" hand on end of thumb, then push it out 
and away, diverging the fingers at the same time. IX, 203. 

Urge. — Hold out the "A" hands, thumbs pointing out and 
the crook in forefinger pushing out somewhat; push the hands 
out and draw back quickly, repeating the motion several times. 

Trade, Substitute, Exchange for. — Place the "A" hands in 
front, one directly behind the other, thumbs pointing up, one 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 57 

hand down and under the other, then up on the other side, at 
the same time changing the other hand in the opposite direc- 
tion so that the hands change relative positions. IX, 204. 

Use, Useful. — Hold the left open hand out, palm up, but 
hand slanting 45 degrees; place the palm of the right open 
hand against the lower edge of left, so that the fingers touch 
the back of it; bring the right hand around and let palms 
touch palms, but do not move left hand; repeat several 
times. IX, 205. 

Try, Effort put forth. — Hold "A" hands out in front; push 
them both forward with an apparent effort. 

Act, Conduct, Deed. — Place bent hands in front from the 
side, fingers bent and pointing down; move them apart and 
then toward each other quite actively and give them a shaking 
motion. Some move hands, in same direction all the time from 
side to side. This is more particularly mere conduct, while 
the former indicates activity. 

Mix, Mingle in confused mass, Confusion. — Bend the fin- 
gers of "5" hands into claws, and hold them, one above the 
other, fingers toward each other, and turn them in a circular 
motion, but in opposite directions, mixing the fingers. IX, 
206. 

Revenge, Retaliate, Pay one back. — "With thumb and fore- 
fingers in pinching position, throw them together so the fingers 
(closed) strike at the same time the thumbs and forefingers 
touch. IX, 207. Or, 

(2) More specifically Retaliation, or to make return. — Hold 
the "0" hands one behind the other, the fingers of the "O" 
up; change their relative positions by drawing one down, 
under and up beyond the other. The sign is frequently made 
in the air by right hand alone, merely throwing it down with 
a jerk. 

Complete, Finish, Bring an end to anything. — Place right 
"B" hand with lower edge at right angles across the top 
edge of left "B" near the wrist; push it along the edge of the 
hand till it reaches the end, then "chop" it off. I, 9. 

Beat, Defeat, Win over.— Hold out left "A" hand, thumb 
pointing up; holding the other hand in similar position some- 
what back, bring it forward against the other and push them 
both over, indicating the one had overcome the other. X, 
208. 



58 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Scold, Reprove. — Hold up the right "G" hand and shake 
the finger at ; the left hand is sometimes held down at the 
elbow or against forearm of the right while the shaking is 
in progress. 

Wage war. — Hold out both ''4" hands with fingers point- 
ing toward each other, back of fingers up, push the hands 
to one side, the right following the left, then to the other side 
and vice versa. 

Fight. — Knock the fists against the sides of the face, or be- 
fore the face. 

Command. — Holding up the left open hand, pointing up- 
ward, throw the forefinger of right "G" hand against it 
crosswise so the finger will point outward, and throw out 
forefinger forward as in sign for "tell." X, 209. 

Order (to give a command). — Hold the end of the fore- 
finger of the right "G" hand at the mouth, under the lower 
lip, give it a slight twist outward as in "speak," then elevate 
toward the right side, carrying the hand as far out as the 
shoulder, and as high as the head, then turn the hand so the 
palm is out and throw the hand forward and down. The 
hand stops before it goes clear down and the forefinger bends 
forward. 

Contest (between opponents, more or less bitter). — Hold 
the "G" hands in front, palms toward self, end to end, a 
foot apart; move both together toward left side, then toward 
the right side, keeping their relative positions. Repeat motion 
several times. X, 210. 

Contest, Rivalry, Race. — Hold the "A" hands out in front, 
thumbs up, and side by side ; push the right hand outward 
to front and at the same time draw the left back; then the 
left forward and right back; and so on, repeating the motion 
several times. X, 211. 

Persevere, Persist, Continue in action.— Draw the "B" hands 
up from the sides, palms down, and let the forefingers strike 
together, side by side, with ends of the hands pointing out- 
ward; separate and strike together again while the hands 
continue to be moved outward. 

Note. — The same idea could be expressed by signing for 
"suffer" or "bear" and "continue," but the latter would 
indicate more a mental action. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 59 

Give up, Lose hope, Discouraged. — Hold the "A" hands 
in front, thumb toward thumb; lift the hands slowly, open 
them to position of "5" and simultaneously with the action 
draw the head and shoulders back somewhat. X, 212. 

Surrender. — Hold hands same as above, but drop them and 
open to " 5. " 

Abandon (throw aside). — Same position of hands, but throw 
them at the side as if casting something away. 

Assume (to take hold of a project or business). — Reaching 
out both hands at the same time, make a grasping motion 
as if taking up something and lift the hands somewhat. At 
first the hands are open and they assume the "S" position 
as they are lifted. Add motion of lifting the burden upon the 
shoulders to indicate taking the responsibility. 

Accuse (to "call," as when we "throw it at" one that one 
is so and so). — Pointing the "G" hand out, push it toward 
imaginary person with a "digging" or thrusting motion. 

Note. — If the speaker is accused, the finger is turned toward 
self. 

Connect with, Join to. — Holding the bent "5" hands out, 
draw them together joining the thumbs and forefingers like 
the link of a chain. 

Disconnect, Part from. — With hands in position as at close 
of above sign, drop the hands apart. 

Defend, Protect. — Hold the "S" hands out in front so the 
left shall be near the body with the thumb inside and the 
elbow elevated to the same level as the hand, the right in 
similar position but just beyond it on the outside ; as soon as 
the hands are brought into position they are given a slight 
resisting motion outward. Sometimes the sign is completed 
by changing the right hand to open, and with palm out both 
hands, the right on outside, moved from left to right as if 
warding off danger. X, 213. 

Rise (from a low to a high estate or condition.) — Hold the 
right "A" hand out rather low, thumb up, and gradually ele- 
vate it, giving it a shaking motion from the wrist without 
giving the arm any motion from side to side. X, 214. 

Sink (1<> fall from a high to a low estate). — Reverse the mo- 
tion above. 

Rise, Appear (come up unexpectedly). — Holding the left 
open hand out in front, bring the right "Q" hand under it 



60 THE iilUN LANGUAGE 

and thrust the forefinger up between the middle and third fin- 
gers of the left hand rather suddenly. 

Shut, Close. — Strike the open hands together, forefinger to 
forefinger, their entire length. 

Open. — "With hands in position closed as above, draw them 
apart. 

Note. — To open or close a -window, place the hands, the left 
pointing toward the right, and the right toward the left, then 
strike the little finger edge of the right against the forefinger 
of the left, for "shut." For "open" or "raise," place the 
hands together as above and then raise the right away from it. 

Injure, Harm. — Hold out the left 'A" hand and across the 
thumb strike the right "A" hand outward so the backs of the 
fingers and knuckles rub against the thumb rather forcibly. 
A slight injury may be indicated by making the motion easier 
andrepeating it once or twice. X, 215. 

Kill. — Holding the left open hand out, pointing upward, and 
palm toward the right, thrust the right "G" hand outward, so 
the side of the forefinger strikes against the palm as the finger 
passes it and continues across the palm ; give the forefinger a 
twisting motion. Note that the motion is one . of stabbing. 
Some follow with the sign for "die," turning the open hand, 
palm up, off toward the side. X, 216. 

Expand. — Holding the bent "5" hands near together and 
palm to palm draw them apart toward the side in a way to 
indicate increasing size. 

Condense, Make brief. — Hold the "C" hands out and bring 
them together so the right comes just above the top of the 
left and when they touch (the little finger of the right along the 
forefinger of the left), close the hands to "S." 

Separate, Draw apart. — Place the bent "B" hands with 
backs of the fingers together and draw apart toward the sides. 

Fish. — Sign for the animal "fish," place the end of the left 
open hand against the right forearm with the right hand ex- 
tended outward, move the right hand from side to side like 
the tail of a fish in swimming ; then make motion as if lifting 
a fish-polo in the hands. 

Hunt. — Make motion as if holding a gun in the hand and 
pulling the trigger, repeating the motion and moving the 
imaginary gun from side to side. 



.1 MANUAL OF SIGNS 61 

Earn. — Holding the left open hand out, palm up, place the 
right "C" hand upon it and scrape it across the palm toward 
self. X, 217. 

Save. — Hold hands somewhat close to self, repeat the motion 
above, then while turning palm of left hand toward self and 
making a pocket with it and the body, thrust the right "&" 
hand into it. 

Spend. — Lay the back of the right "&" hand in the open 
left; push the right out across the left into position of "5." 

Lie, Recline. — Lay the back of the right "V" hand in the 
palm of the open left. Sometimes the right hand is also drawn 
a little toward self. 

Rest. — Fold the arms across the breast. 

Aspire, Aim toward securing an object. — Place the end of 
the forefinger of the right hand at the side of the forehead 
just above the eye, and hold the left "G" hand out, forefinger 
pointing upward ; bring the right forefinger away from the 
forehead and carry it to and strike the end of the left fore- 
finger with its end. This also indicates purpose. 

Fine, Charge. — Place the end of the forefinger of the right 
"G" hand against the open left hand, palm up; draw the right 
hand away, crook the finger, and strike the end of the joint 
downward against the palm of the open left hand, now turned 
toward self, allowing the right hand to pass down past the 
left. 

Tax. — Strike the end of the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand in the upward turned palm of the open left several times. 

Revive, Bring up something from the past. — Reach the hands 
back over the right shoulder and grasp imaginary object and 
drag it forward. 

Hide. — Place the thumb of the right "A" hand against 
the mouth, then bring it down and place it under the left bent 
hand held in front, palm down; the left hand rests on the 
right at the end of the sign. 

Seek, Investigate. — Move the right "C" hand in front of 
the face in a circle from right to left, keeping the "C" side 
toward the face ; keep the motion continuous for a little while. 

Depend. — Suspend the right "G" hand by the forefinger 
upon the edge of the left open hand, palm held toward self. 

Suspend, Hang. — Crook the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand and make motion of hanging it on an imaginary nail. 



62 THE XIGN LANGUAGE 

Sleep. — Draw the right "5" hand down across the length of 
the face, touching the palm against it. 

Wake. — Place the closed "0" hands at the side of the eyes 
(one on either side) and quickly open the thumb and forefinger 
thus representing the opening of the eyelids. 

Scatter. — Draw the "&" hands up against the breast, end 
to end, then throw them both outward toward the side, open- 
ing the hands to "5". 

Beg, Ask Alms. — Hold out the right hand as a beggar does 
and draw it toward self several times, bending the fingers to- 
ward you at the same time. Repeat several times. 

Wash. — Rub the "A" hands, fingers across fingers, as one 
does in rubbing clothes in the wash. If it is to wash the hands 
or face simply imitate these actions in natural signs. 

Accompany. — Make the sign for "with" and move it for- 
ward indicating motion forward. To express the idea of wan- 
dering around with move the hands forward in a sort of zig- 
zag manner. 

Compare. — Holding the open hands outward and lifted at 
an angle of 45 degrees, breast high, palms opposite, bring 
them inward and up before you side by side as if looking at and 
comparing the palms. 

Found, Establish. — Holding out the left hand, palm down, 
carefully lift the right "A" hand and set it upon the back of 
the left as if placing something there firmly. 

Foundation. — Make the sign for building upward and then 
place the right "A" hand as above. 

Cut. — With the right " H " hand as a pair of scissors imitate 
the action of cutting, using the end of the left hand to repre- 
sent what is cut. Or with the right "H" hand representing 
the blade of a knife make a motion downward with it as if 
cutting off something. 

Scissors. — Open and close the two fingers of the right "H" 
hand imitating the action of scissors blades. 

Weigh. — Hold the two "F" hands out breast high, as if bal- 
ancing them and then raise and lower them alternately as if 
they were the balances of a pair of scales. Or, place the fore- 
finger of the right "G" hand across that of the left "G" hand 
and let it bend, first on one side and then on the other as if 
balancing it. 

Temptation, Tempt.— Holding the left forearm toward, but 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 63 

not quite against, the body just above the waist, tap the fore- 
arm well over near the elbow with the end of the finger or the 
right "G" hand. To emphasize the verb form after the sign 
above hold out the right hand and motion with the finger as 
if calling some one to come. 

Ascend. — Make the natural motion of lifting the right hand 
upward, bringing the ends of the fingers pointing upward at 
the conclusion. 

Shave, Razor. — "With the right "Y" hand representing the 
razor and the thumb the blade, draw it down one side of the 
face as in the act of shaving. 

Beard. — Draw the hand, (fingers on one side and thumb on 
the other) down the sides of the face. 

Sew. — Imitate the action of sewing in natural signs. 

Thread, String. — Grasp the end of the little finger of the 
horizontal "I" hand with the thumb and forefinger of the 
right hand and then draw it away as if drawing thread from 
a spool. 

Rope. — Grasp the little finger as above but with the fingers 
of the right "R" hand and continue the right hand as "R" 
in bringing it away. * • s 

Needle. — Place the end of the thumb of the right hand at the 
knuckle of the left and the ends of the forefingers together so 
that the thumb and forefinger of the right hand forms an arch 
along the edge of the left forefinger. Draw the right thumb 
and forefinger together along the edge of the left till they 
come together. 

Button. — Push the end of the right thumb up through or 
between the first two fingers of the left hand with a twist and 
continue twisting the thumb. 

Automobile. — Make motion of steering an auto. There are 
variations of this sign according to locality. Some make sim- 
ply the sign for "machine" that is, with the fingers of the 
hands locked together in a position of the cogs of a wheel, they 
are given several half turns together up and down. 

Tent. — Illustrate the shape of a tent with the two "V" hands 
with ends of fingers together as the apex. With an outward 
and downward motion represent an extension of the sides of 
the tent. 

Camp. — Make the sign for "tent" several times to indicate 
a number of camps. 



OCCUPATIONS OF MANKIND 

In indicating the individual following any occupation, make 
the sign for that occupation and add the sign for "-er," as fol- 
lows : Bring the open hands, palms near the body and fingers 
pointing forward but inclined toward each other at an angle 
of 45 degrees, up to the breast; with the palms against the 
body, press them downward, indicating thus the individual. 
XI, 218. 

Law. — Hold up open left hand, fingers up, pointing the 
thumb toward you; lift up the forefinger of right "G" hand 
and throw it against the palm of the left near the end of the 
fingers; strike the palm this way several times but each time 
striking it lower down. For "lawyer" add sign above de- 
scribed for "-er." XI, 219. 

Preach. — Hold up the right "F" hand above the shoulder 
slightly forward and out; in this position throw the hand out 
and down, toward an imaginary audience. For "preacher" 
add "-er." XI, 220. 

Teach. — Hold up " & " hands, one on either side of the head 
opposite the temples; push them outward, opening them; re- 
peat the action several times. "Teacher," add "-er." 

Lecture, Orator. — Hold up the open hand to the side and 
front, as a speaker does in making a gesture ; bring it down 
diagonally a little toward the other side and repeat motion 
several times. "Lecturer," add "-er." 

Cook. — Place right hand on palm of left and turn it as if it 
were a pancake. "Cook" (one who cooks), add "-er." 

Baker. — Would be literally "bread maker;" make sign for 
bread by holding bent left hand in front; with the right "B" 
hand used as knife, make act of cutting across backs of fin- 
gers; then imitate action of kneading, and add "-er." 

Carpenter, Cabinet-Maker. — Make motion of planing a 
board; add "-er." 

Printer. — Make motion of printer in putting type into a 
stick; add "-er." XI, 221. 

Shoemaker. — Push the ends of the forefingers of "G" hands 
toward each other as if they were awls forced through a piece 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 65 

of leather; bend the ends of the fingers and draw them away 
from each other as if they were drawing back the thread. XI, 
222. Or, 

(2) Make sign for ' ' shoe, ' ' thus : Push right " & " hand into 
the partly closed left hand, and sign for "maker." 

Tailor. — Make motion of sewing and add "-er. " 

Dressmaker. — Sign first for "female;" then rub the hands 
lightly downward against the body several times, indicating 
its covering, for "dress;" then add sign for "maker." 

Merchant. — "Seller." Indicate the kind of merchant by 
sign for what he sells and add "seller." Thus, grocery-man 
is literally "sugar seller" or "seller of sugar, food, etc." 

Build. — Build up the hands by placing the palm of one on 
back of other, like laying bricks, repeating the motion with 
each hand alternately several times, raising them during the 
action. 

Artist. — Sign for ' ' draw ; ' ' using the hand as a rest and the 
little finger as a brush, make motion of drawing, then add 
"-er." Or, 

(2) Using both little fingers as brushes, holding them op- 
posite, make motion (in the air) of drawing, adding "-er. " 

Farmer . — Sign for "farm," i. e., bring the left arm up 
against the breast, "A" hand near left shoulder. Eub the arm 
near the elbow with the right open hand in a circular motion. 
Add "-er." XI, 223. 

Blacksmith.— Pound the forefinger of the left "G" hand 
with the right "S" (little finger end) ; add "-er." 

Doctor. — Place the forefinger of "D" right hand on the 
pulse of the left hand and add ' ' -er. ' ' 

Nurse.— Same, but use "N" instead of "D." 

Surveyor. — Hold the hands as if they were adjusting a sur- 
veyor's instrument in front of you; make motion of sighting 
and measuring along; add "-er." 

Secretary. — Eeach up the right hand as if to take an imag- 
inary pen from behind the ear ; bring it down and make motion 
of writing; add "-er." XI, 224. 

Treasurer. — Sign "money keeper." 

President. — Eeach the "C" hands up at either side of the 
head and grasp imaginary horns, carrying both "S"' hands 
out simultaneously; then sign "rule over" thus: bring left 
hand down, thumb toward breast; open the right hand and 



66 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

reach it out and pass it over the left arm in a semi-circle from 
right to left, XI, '225. 

Vice-President. — Make sign for "president" and then "sec- 
ond"— holding right "V" hand partly upward and twisting 
the hand half around. 

Governor. — The end of the forefinger of "G" hand is placed 
against the temple ; withdraw it, describe a small circle in the 
air, and place end again on temple ; next pass right hand over 
left, etc., as in "president." XI, 226. 

Soldier. — Hold the "A" hands at one side one above the 
other as in holding a gun, soldier-like, against the side. 

Captain, or Officer in General. — Place the hand upon the 
shoulder, thus indicating the shoulder straps or epaulets. 

Army. — Sign for soldier and then for "class," i. e., bring 
the "C" hands out and draw them toward each other to a 
central point. 

Robber. — Draw the "N" hands (fingers) across the upper 
lip, centre to side (one on either side) and add "-er." 

King. — Place the right "K" hand just below the left shoul- 
der, then carry it down to the opposite side of the body near 
the waist; add "rule over;" to this sign add "country" and 
we have "kingdom." XI, 227. 

Queen. — Same with right " Q " hand. 

Emperor. — Same with right "E" hand. 

Note : In all of the last three, as well as in the case of all 
persons exercising power of authority, it is more correct to 
add "rule" as below. 

Rule, Exercise authority over. — Hold the hands forward as 
if holding lines; pull first one and then the other; bring the 
left open hand, palm down, toward the right and against 
the breast and at the same time extend the right open hand, 
palm down, straight out and around loward the left, describing 
a semi-circle in front of the body from right to left, as in latter 
part of the sign for "president." 

Superintendent, Foreman (the person exercising control). — ■ 
Make sign for male, then follow with last part of sign as above, 
bringing the left hand in and the right out and over. If the 
person exercising authority is a female, the sign for "female" 
is made instead of that for "male." 



ADJECTIVES AND ABSTRACT NOUNS 

Note : In the sign there is no distinguishing difference, as 
a rule, between the adjective and the abstract noun. Whether 
one or the other is meant is determined by the context or the 
circumstances under which it is used. Comparison is indicated 
by following the sign for the adjective by a sign indicating the 
degree, without any pause, thus: For the comparative ("-er"), 
draw the "A" hand out toward the right side in front, raising 
it with a slight jerking motion to the height of the shoulder. 
For the superlative ("-est") make the same motion but carry 
the hand higher to a level just above the head. For example, 
in making the sign for "better" the end of the open hand is 
placed against the mouth and the sign for "good" is made, 
but before quite finishing it the "A" hand is brought up the 
side as indicated so that there is no stop made, the whole 
movement appearing as one sign. To make "than," bring 
the right hand from the sign of the adjective and degree quick- 
ly downward, palm down, past the left open hand, held ver- 
tically edgewise, pointing outward. 

Good. — Place the end of the palm against the mouth ; then 
bring it down against the open left hand so the back of the 
right hand rests in the palm of the left. In common use the 
latter part of the sign is omitted and the hand is simply thrown 
forward from the mouth. XII, 228. 

Bad. — Same position of the hand as in "good;" in bringing 
the hand away draw it slightly toward the right, turn it 
palm down and thrown the hand downward. XII, 229. 

Old. — Place the "S" hand against the end of the chin and 
with a shaking or trembling motion pull it downward, as if 
pulling an imaginary beard. XII, 230. 

Young. — With the open hands in front on a level with the 
waist-line, palms toward self, make a brushing motion with 
the ends of the hands against the body, upward, carrying 
them on away from the body. Eepeat several times. XII, 
231. 



68 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

hong. — Placing the forefinger of the right "G" hand length- 
wise near the wrist of the extended left arm, draw it up the 
full length of the arm to the shoulder. XII, 232. 

Short. — Holding the "G" hands in front and elbows rest- 
ing against the sides, bring the forefingers toward each other. 
XII, 233*. Or, 

(2) Place the finger of the right "H" hand edgewise upon 
the fingers of the left "H" hand, near the latter 's knuckles; 
move the right fingers toward the end of the left. 

Enough. — Hold out the left "S" hand and across the top 
pass the palm of the open right hand, making the motion 
outward. XII, 234. 

Plenty. — Repeat the sign for "enough" several times suc- 
cessively and to make it more emphatic add "much." 

Full. — Hold out the left "O" hand and pass the palm of 
the open right hand over it, making the motion from right to 
left. XII, 235. 

Strong. — Hold out the "S" hands to the front from the side ; 
moving them slightly to one side, describe a small arc or circle, 
making a show of using considerable force. The motion is 
something like slinging a sledge hammer. 

Note: The sign for "strong" is somewhat similar to that 
for "can;" in the latter no circular motion is given the hands 
but they are brought straight down. XII, 236. 

Weak. — Place the ends of the fingers of "V" hand in the 
palm of the open left hand; push the right hand against the 
palm so that the fingers bend and the hand falls against the 
palm. XII, 237. 

Clear, Plain.— Bring the "&" hands in front, pointing out, so 
that the thumbs and forefingers touch at a common point; 
move the hands outward and apart while the fingers are 
separated, bringing the hands to position of "5." XII, 238. 

Obscure (hard to understand or make out). — Place the "5" 
hands palm to palm; rub or pass the right back and forth 
across the left several times. By making this sign in a way to 
express action will indicate "camouflage." 

Soft. — Hold out both "5" hands with the fingers and thumb 
bent slightly toward each other; bring both hands to position 
of "&," as if pressing something soft in your hand. 

Hard.— Strike the back of the left fist with the back of the 
right. Or, 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 69 

(2) Strike the back of the left fist with the fingers of the 
"H" hand bent almost double, striking the middle joint of 
the middle finger on the back of the fist. 

Note: The latter sign is often used in the sense of a "hard 
case," or a "hardened sinner," when made once and with con- 
siderable force. By touching the heart with the middle finger of 
the right open hand and then making sign for "hard" is 
indicated one without feeling, "hard hearted." 

Difficult (hard to perform). — Place the "S" hands one 
above the other ; then circle one around the other, moving both 
at the same time, the motion being outward and down (not 
from side to side). Make a show of some effort in moving 
the hands. XII, 239. 

Easy. — Hold out the left bent hand, fingers pointing toward 
the right and slightly up ; with the open right hand brush light- 
ly against the back of the fingers, carrying the right hand up- 
ward and beyond the ends of the fingers. XII, 240. 

Poor. — Holding the left arm over against the body in front, 
grasp the under part of the sleeve with the right hand and 
pull it down once or twice. XII, 241. 

Rich. — Place the "&" hand, back down, in the palm of the 
open left hand, as in the sign for "money;" (XXII, 396) lift 
and let fall again once or twice and then draw it up, opening 
the hand and separating the fingers somewhat, indicating 
"much money," as if letting money fall from right into left 
hand. 

Poor, Lean. — Place the thumb on one side of the face and 
the forefinger on the other; draw them downward and draw 
in the sides of the cheeks. Or, press ends of open hands against 
cheeks, downward and outward indicating hollowness of 
cheeks. 

Fat. — Hold the "5" hands, with fingers slightly bent in, one 
en either side of the face, and as you puff out the cheeks draw 
the hands away toward the sides. 

Bough (in sense of rude in manner). — Pass the ends of the 
fingers of "5" hand, bent, lengthwise across the open palm of 
the left hand, making the motion outward from the wrist 
to the end of the hand. 

Rough (as to its surface). — Holding hands at right angles, 
pass the end of the right hand across the back of the left, 
giving it a waving motion as if it were passing over a rough 
surface. 



70 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Smooth. — Hold the "&" hands out and rub the end of the 
thumb against the ends of the fingers, drawing the hands a 
little away from each other. This sign also indicates "of fine 
quality. ' ' Or, 

(2) First draw the right "G" forefinger across the length 
of the back of the left hand (held at right angles) and then 
follow with the sign as above. Or, 

(3) Draw the right open palm, turned down, across the 
left open palm turned up. 

Sharp (a sharp edge). — Holding the open left hand out, pass 
the end of the middle finger of the right "5" hand (slightly 
bent further in than the other fingers) along the lower edge 
as if feeling its keenness, then draw away the hand quickly, 
giving it a twist so that the finger comes to point downward. 

Sharp, Shrewd. — Using the right open hand as a whetstone, 
make motion of whetting against the edge of the open left 
hand. XII, 242. 

Sharp, Bright, Intellectually brilliant. — With the middle 
finger of the right "5" hand bent in, place the end against 
the center of the forehead, then throw it off with a twist, so 
that when the hand comes to rest the fingers point outward. 
The motion is similar to that in first sign for "sharp edge," 
but the sign is made from the forehead instead of the edge of 
the hand. XII, 243. 

Dull (as to edge). — Holding the left open hand in front, 
palm toward self, strike the bottom edge with the top edge 
of the right "B" hand brought up from below. 

Dull, Stupid. — Strike the forehead with the fingers of the 
right "A" hand at the middle joints. Or, 

(2) Strike the end of the left open hand, in front, palm 
toward self, with the fingers of the right "A" hand. Or, 

(3) Hold the left "B" hand in front, palm down; place 
the right "C" hand so the thumb is directly under knuckle of 
the forefinger of the left and the 'C" measures the imaginary 
thickness of the skull ; move the hand along to the end of the 
forefinger, keeping it still in the same position. 

Sly. — Same as for ' ' shrewd. ' ' Or, 

(2) Make sign for "fox," i. e., grasp end of nose with the 
"F" hand and wave the other fingers of the hand; then fol- 
low with sign for "same'' in sense of "like," i. e., bring the 
"(!" hands together with the forefingers extended parallel 
Or, 



A MANUAL OF SIUNS 71 

(3) A slang sign often used to make the sign for "ghost" 
in a peculiar manner and very quickly, as follows : Make the 
shape of "U" with the thumbs and forefingers, extending tli3 
other fingers; place the right hand above the other, fingers 
pointing toward self; with a quick motion draw the right hand 
upward and the left hand down, and while doing so close the 
ends of the forefingers and thumbs. This sign is used to in- 
dicate that something is done "on the sly." 

Tall. — Hold the open left hand pointing up ; against the 
palm place the right "G" hand, end of finger pointing up; 
push the right hand upward the length of the left hand and 
beyond. 

Short (in stature). — Hold the right bent hand out at one 
side indicating the height of the person described (real or 
imaginary) ; lower and raise the hand two or three times. 

Note: For "short" in length, see preceding pages; xor 
"short" in time, see under "Measurements of Time." 

Bright, Glistening (as to condition). — Hold the "5" hand 
out till the ends of the fingers come nearly together; draw 
the hands upward and outward toward the side, giving the 
fingers a rapid motion like that made when playing a piano. 
The idea is that the fingers represent scintillating beams of 
light. Or, 

(2) Using one hand ("5"), draw it upward from left to 
right, describing a semi-circle, and give it a waving or twist- 
ing motion all the while. XII, 244. 

Brave, Courageous. — Place the "A" hands on either side of 
the breast so that they are just below the shoulder ; in placin 5 
them there first leave the hand somewhat open and as yc.i 
reach up make a grasping motion against the body; move the 
hands straight out from the shoulder nearly the length of th 3 
arms; move the upper part of the body forward the least bit. 
XII, 245. 

Cowardly, Afraid, Timid. — Hold up the "5" hands, with 
palms out, as if to ward off some danger; bring the hands 
back toward the body with a downward motion and draw tlu 
body back as if shrinking I'nini imaginary danger. 

Lazy. — Throw the right "L" hand against the left shoulder. 

Idl e . — Place the thumbs of the "Ij" hands at the arm pit, 
and wave the fingers. 



72 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Wide. — Place the open hands near together, palms toward 
each other, and then draw the hands apart. 

Narrow. — Place the open hands as above, but farther apart, 
and then draw toward each other. 

Width. — Make sign first as in "wide" and then as in "nar- 
row," indicating the idea of size. 

Deep. — With the "6" finger pointing down push the hand 
downward. The sign is sometimes made by pushing the fin- 
ger down between the middle and third finger of the left hand 
held out, back up. 

Shallow. — Hold out the left open hand, palm up, and above 
it hold the right open hand, palm down ; push the hands toward 
each other, draw them back, and repeat the motion several 
times. Or, sign "deep, little." 

High. — Pointing upward the forefinger of "G" hand, raise 
+he hand to some height. Or, using the bent hand, pointing 
the fingers out, raise the hand, and as the length of the arm is 
reached extend the hand. 

Far. — Pointing the "G" finger outward, move the hand 
slowly out the full length of the arm. Or, 

(2) Place the "A" hands in juxtaposition so the middle 
joints touch and the thumbs point toward each other, the 
left hand resting close to the breast and the other a little in 
front; draw the right hand away slowly outward the full 
length of the arm. 

Mixed. — Place the bent "5" hands one above the other so 
the fingers point toward each other; with a circular stirring 
motion move the right hand around from right to left and the 
left from left to right; continue the motion until the hands 
have described two or three circles. 

Orderly, Ready. — Extend the open hands, pointing outward, 
and parallel to each other, over toward the left side ; lift them 
both together from the wrists, move toward the right a little, 
and let them come down again; repeat the motion until the 
hands have been moved over to the right side. 

True, Indeed. — Place the tip edge of the forefinger of "G" 
hand, pointing upward, against the lips and move straight 
forward some distance, keeping it perpendicular. XII, 246. 

False, a lie.— Move tho forefinger of the right "G" hand, 
held lengthwise, across the mouth from right to left with fin- 
ger pointing toward the left. XII, 247. Or. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 73 

(2) Move the tip of the finger held perpendicularly across 
the same way. This indicates a less heinous falsehood, a "fib," 
or softens the accusation, and is used in preference to "lie" 
when speaking of imitations or false material. 

Awful. — Hold the "0" hands one against either temple; 
throw both hands simultaneously forward from the head, not 
quite arm's length, opening the fingers the while, so they as- 
sume position of "5" at the end of the sign. The sign may be 
made with one hand only. 

Fearful. — Place the "F" hands, one against either cheek, 
near the jaw; move them slowly to the temples and finish as 
ibove in "awful." 

Dangerous. — Make sign for "fearful" and follow with "hap- 
pen," i. e., bring hands to position of "G" and quickly drop 
and twist them inward until they come to rest, backs up, par- 
allel nnd pointing outward. 

Careful (exercising watchfulness). — Place the "V" hands 
one resting across the other, the left pointing outward and 
the right pointing toward the left; slowly raise and lower 
both hands, keeping them in same position.- 

Careless, Heedless. — Hold the "V" hand in front of the 
forehead, pointing up; move back and forth from right to 
left and left to right several times. 

Different. — Cross the ends of the "G" hands pointing out- 
ward ; draw the fingers and hands apart toward the sides. 

Various (different, in sense of many kinds). — Use the same 
motion but while drawing the hands apart give the forefingers 
a vibrating, up-and-down motion. 

Curious. — Move the " C " hand with opening toward the left, 
in front of the face, describing a circle from right to left. 

Funny, Humorous. — Rub the ends of the fingers of the "N" 
hand downward along the end of the nose, holding the palm 
side down. 

Busy. — Make the sign for work, i. e., strike the top of the 
left wrist with the under side of the right wrist, holding the 
hands in position of "S," and add sign of "action." 

Action, Active. — Place the bent hands with fingers pointing 
down, in front out from the sides; draw them apart toward 
the sides and again bring them near; repeat the motion rather 
rapidly. 



74 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Perfect. — Hold the left "P" hand pointing up; strike tip of 
the middle finger with the tip of the middle finger of right 
"P" hand. It is like throwing the "P's" together. 

Correct, Exact.— Holding the left "G" hand pointing out, 
the "G" up, strike it on the top with the right "G" hand held 
in a similar position. 

Alone. — Move the 'G" hand, with the back outward, and 
the finger pointing upward, straight out from the front and 
while doing so give it a zigzag motion from side to side. 

Lonesome, Lonely. — Draw the forefinger of the "G" hand, 
held perpendicular, it.s length downward, across the mouth; 
then follow with the sign for "alone" as above. 

Fast, Quick, Rapid. — Make the motion as in shooting a 
marble except that you hold the end of the thumb directly on 
the end of the forefinger. XII, 248. Or, 

(2) Extend the left open hand pointing edgewise outward; 
with a quick motion bring the right hand up alongside and, 
pushing it straight out, strike the hands palm to palm, pushing 
the right hand on out beyond the end of the left and drawing 
the left well back. 

Slow. — Draw the right hand slowly down the back of tha 
left, held out and turned slightly upward. XII, 249. 

Noble. — Strike the heart with the right "N" hand, palm 
against the body. It is usual to give something of a flourish 
to the hand as it is brought up to the position against the 
heart. 

Low, Base. — Let the "A" hand drop in stages, holding it 
out in front from the side. XII, 250. 

High, Prominent. — Holding the "A" hand out in front from 
the side, slowly lift it to a height above the head. XII, 251. 

Polite, Courteous. — Strike the breast with the thumb of the 
"5" hand, all the fingers pointing upward; repeat the motion 
several times. XII, 252. 

Fine. — With the "5" hand held somewhat farther out, bring 
back and strike the breast once as above, but more forcibly; 
or, as in "nice," pass palm of right hand over left palm oul- 
wnrd. XII, 25:!. 

Magnificent. — Place the "5" hands pointing outward witli 
1 numbs against the body just above the waist-line and one 
hand on either side ; draw the hands up almost to the level 
of the shoulders and then let them fall away ; while the hands 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 75 

are moving upward give the fingers a vibrating motion. The 
sign may be made with one hand only. 

Right. — Hold out the open left hand, palm up; diagonally 
across the palm push the right open- hand with edge touching 
the palm. The sign may be made straight across. XII, 254. 

Wrong. — Push the hand across as above but in a zigzag way 
instead of in a straight line. XII, 255. 

Just, Fair. — From a position toward each side, bring the 
extended "0" hands together so the thumbs and fingers touch. 

"Good Enough," " Goody. "—Holding the closed "0" 
hands perpendicular, strike the "O's" together several times 
with somevindictiveness. XII, 256. 

Unjust, Unfair. — Hold the hands in position as in above 
when the hands are brought together ; raise the right hand 
and bring it down forcibly so that the "0" of the right hand 
strikes against the "0" of the left. XII, 257. 

Fair (in the sense of good to a moderate degree). — First 
make the sign for good, then bring the open hands out toward 
the side from a position in front, as follows : let the hands 
come up edgewise and gradually turn them with palms up and 
give a slight shrug of the shoulder. Or, make sign for "med- 
ium," as explained below. 

Worth. — Holding the extended "0" hands out in front, 
somewhat down, bring them up together in front as in "just," 
but note that they are brought from a lower position and 
gradually approach each other and not from the sides straight 
together as in "just." XII, 258. 

Worthless. — Sign for "worth," then follow with turning the 
hands apart, and dropping them. Or, 

(2) Strike the closed "0" hands together several times, 
bringing the thumbs and forefingers as closed together, then 
draw the hands apart. Or, in the last part of the sign open 
the hands quickly, draw the right hand above the left, and 
strike the palm of the left with the back of the right and let 
the hands then fall apart. 

Valuable. — Sometimes expressed by the sign for "worth," 
but it is more correct to add sign for "money" and "much," 
made as follows : Money — Strike the palm of the open left hand 
with the back of the right "&" hand several times. For Much 
— From its position in the palm, draw the right hand away, 
letting it become "5" hand with fingers pointing toward palm 
of left. 



76 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Nice, Clean, Pure. — Place the right open hand upon the open 
left, crosswise and palm to palm, and letting the right hand 
rest near the ball of the thumb; pass the right hand along the 
length of the left. When made in connection with "ghost" 
or sacred subjects this sign means "Holy." XIII, 259. 

Dirty, Nasty. — Place the back of the "4" hand under the 
chin and wig^e or wave the fingers. XIII, 260. 

Pretty, Beautiful. — Place the right "5" hand before the 
face, while the hand describes a small circle, close the fingers 
and thumb till the hand has assumed the "&" position, when 
finishing the circle. The fingers move in a larger circle than 
the wrist, which is kept nearly stationary. XIII, 261. 

Ugly, Homely. — Crook the forefingers of the " G " hands and 
bring them up in front of the face so that the fingers are 
directly at the end of the nose and the fingers barely crossed 
(but not locked) ; draw the hands apart toward the sides. XIII, 
262. Or, 

(2) Place the "A" hands, or the closed "0" hands, one 
at either cheek, but not touching them, as in pinching or grasp- 
ing something between the forefinger and thumb; push one 
hand up and the other down, repeating the motion several 
times, the hands going up and down alternately as if distorting 
the face. 

Medium, Midway. — Hold the left open hand out in front 
with the palm toward self; place the right "B" hand pointing 
out so the lower edge of the right is directly across the top 
edge of the left, between the thumb and fingers. 

Expensive, Dear. — Lay the back of the right "&" hand in 
palm of left, for "money;" draw it away to the right and 
then drop it with a kind of jerk. 

Cheap. — Begin sign same as above ; lift the right hand away 
and while doing so turn it so its palm faces down toward that 
of the left, and then push the right hand toward the left as in 
"small," thus indicating a small amount of money. 

Wet. — Sign for "water," i. e., place forefinger of "W" 
hand against the lips; then bring both hands in front, and with 
both in position of slightly bent "5" hands close the fingers 
to a point with the thumb, as in the "&" hand, and repeat the 
opening and closing of the hand alternately several times, as 
if handling something wet. 



Plate IX. 





jtQ 




t%3 Happen /$ 4 Make /S^Trrange /gfc Attend /?7 Steal 



S? o c 




/S? Rule J? 7 Grow /?fl Disappear /?/ Melt, fade If 3- Live 

9 o .a a 




/?:? Die IH Burn, fire /?f Decrease /?6Seek /?7Sign 




/?? Stop /?? Approach 2oo Discharge % o/ Cause aoS- Influence 




ld3 Influence 2ay Trade 2.0S Use 2<>*> Mix J2«7 Revenge 




2*? Defeat 2 of Command xio Contest £// Race 3.1 2. Give up 




2 13 Defend 2/ 4 Rise 2 / 5~ Injure 2/ ^ Kill 2. 1 7 Earn 



Plate XI. 




iji -if a/7 Law 22" Preach ill Printer lis. Shoemaker 




513 Farmer iiy Secretary 2 if President a i<> Governor 2. 27 King 




Plate XII 




ft I £% c\ 




12 8 Good 3.2-9 Bad 2.3° Old 2.31 Young 2 32. Long 




2.3 3 Short 2 34 Enough 2 34" Full £ 3 £> Strong 2. 3 7 Weak 




23 1 Clear 23? Difficult H" Easy 2.4 I Poor ii/ 2 Shrewd 




Brigh^mart * ^ Bright 2</* Brave 24^ True liaise, lie 




2V? Fast % 4 1 Slow 21-oLow. base If/ High 2*2. Polite 




1S3 Fine iff Right iff Wrong i ft Good enough in Unjust 




2fS Worth iff Clean, nice itoDirty, nasty £6/ Pretty a 4 2- Ugly 




26.3 Dry 2<-4white -5 <^ Important ^Excessive ^^Responsible 




3-b% Time 24,?Period X7" Day 17/ Morning 2 ^Evening 



27? Tomorrow 27 V Yesterday 27fln a f^wdays .2?£> After 27 7 Before 

9 





i?? Daily 27?Month 2. 2^ Year 2.SIHour 2?zAlways 




3 



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|^?8 Next 2*1 Next 2 a f Then 2?/ When ifi During 







W3 Much 



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i^7Summer 



f 




2.?S Fall 1 11 Since 3'° Late Jo/ Where 3 01 Still 




3o3 Bread 3°4 Butter 3oS"Meat 3°kGravy 3o7p otatoes_ 




3° s Salt 3°f Cheese 3/0 Coffee 3ii Tea 3/a.Corn 




3'-? Onion 3/4 Flour 3j£ Pie 3/6 Cracker 3/? Oyster 




3/* Apple 3J1 Grape 320 Orange 32.1 Cabbage 3i2-Beer 




313 Animal 31 f Horse 325- C ow 32-fc Cat 3.2.7 sheep 




322 Hog 32? Bird 33oCock 331 Duck 332- Lion 



P- 






JL 



^TBK 



333 Squirrel 33 if Rabbit 33i"Deer 334. Bear 337 Monkey 

J3? Butterfly 33 1 Worm 3^« Kat J/// Spider 3y2Fish 




A MANUAL OF SIGNS 77 

Dry. — Draw the crooked forefinger of the right "G" hand 
from left to right across the mouth. XIII, 263. 

Color. — Placing the end of the right "B" hand in the center 
of the left palm, give it a twisting motion as near as possible 
like an artist mixing colors on his palette. 

Red. — Draw the end of the forefinger of the right "G" hand 
downward across the lower lip, two or three times. 

Pink. — Draw the "P" hand downward across the mouth or 
just the lower lip. 

Blue. — Holding the "B" hand up in front give it a trem- 
bling or shaking motion while drawing it toward the right side. 

Green. — Similar motion with the right " G " hand. 

Yellow. — Similar motion with the right "Y" hand. 

Purple. — Similar motion with the right " P " hand. 

Brown. — Holding the right "B" hand in front, move it to 
the right side while working the fingers. Or, 

(2) Give the shaking motion with the "R" hand, at same 
time keeping fingers open. 

White. — Place the palm of the open right hand against the 
breast; draw it away (to the front), bringing the fingers into 
the position of "&." # XIII, 264. 

Black. — Draw the forefinger of the right "G" hand across 
the right eyebrow from left to right. 

Gray.— With the "5" hands held in front, palms to self, 
throw them in and out in opposite directions so the fingers 
of one hand strike the fingers of the other as the hands pass, 
as it were, through each other. Or make "black" and 
"white," then "mix." 

Several, Few.— Gradually extend the fingers of the right 
"A" hand, one at a time, beginning with the forefinger. 

Wild. — Push the "5" hands up (one on either side of the 
head), above the head at the sides, giving them a violent shak- 
ing motion, twisting them at the elbows. 

Tame (same as Pet.)— Rub the back of the left "B" hand 
with the palm of the right several times, similar to the strok- 
ing of a cat. 

Note: The verbs are signed the same way, and the noun 
"pet" same as above. 

Wilful.— Strike the breast upward with the thumb of the 
right "A" hand several times; or rub upward with the same 
hand against the breast, giving the body a slight forward 



78 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

movement as if pressing against the restraint of the right hand. 

Important. — Place the right "1" hand upon the back of the 
left "A" hand and elevate the latter, carrying the right hand 
with it. X11I, 265. Or, 

(2) Hold the left "A" hand out at the front from the side, 
thumb extended, and pointing toward the left almost over 
the shoulder; place the right "A" hand in same position, 
somewhat lower and diagonally under the left about the center 
of the waist ; elevate both at the same time toward the left. 

Strange. — Sign "know" and "new" together. 

Heavy. — Holding the open hands in front, palms up, lift 
them with an apparent effort as if they held a load. 

Light. — Same motion, but quick and easy as if the load were 
light. 

Pleasant. — Holding the open hands just above the shoul- 
ders, palms toward back, wave them backward over the shoul- 
ders. 

Note: This sign is used also to indicate "taking a walk" 
though it should be followed by the sign for "walk." 

Drunk. — Toss the end of the thumb of the "Y" hand against 
the mouth as if carrying a bottle to the mouth to drink; then 
move the right arm, pointing upward from the elbow, forward 
in a staggering way. 

Excessive, Exceed, Above the Ordinary. — Placing the left 
bent hand in front, palm down, rest the right bent hand upon 
the backs of the fingers, and then carry it up more or less 
according as the excess is great or small. XIII, 266. 

Empty, Gone, Out of, denoting Absence. — Place the right 
"5" hand in the left "C" hand, the "C" over the back of the 
right which is pointed up; drop the right hand down out of 
the left and let the latter close over it to "0." 

Stylish, Fashionable. — Place the "&" hands side by side, 
pointing outward and touching; carry first the right forward 
toward side, assuming "5" position, and then draw it back; 
do the same with the left hand and repeat the motion several 
times. 

Responsible. — Place both hands, one above the other, on the 
right shoulder, indicating that something rests thereon. XIII, 
267. 

Difficulty, Obstacle.— Crook the two "H" hands and bring 
the bent joints together as in a collision, rather forcibly. 



MEASUREMENT OF TIME, SPACE AND QUANT T L 

Time. — Crook the forefinger of right "G" hand and with 
the tip end tap the back of the left "S" hand. XIV, 268. Or, 

(2) Upon the palm of the left open hand held edgewise 
pointing outward, describe a circle with the right "T" hand. 

Period of time. — Hold out the open left hand palm up and 
pointing outward; pass the right "G" hand along the length 
of the left palm. XIV ; 269. 

Time (a short period of). — Place the right "H" hand, 
pointing outward, across the left "B" hand held in front 
pointing toward the right; with a scraping motion move it 
back and forth along the top of the forefinger of the left hand. 

Day. — Hold the right "G" hand out, pointing away from 
the body toward the right side, the arm held straight from 
the elbow; place the open left hand against the arm near the 
elbow and holding it there turn the right arm with the elbow 
as a pivot toward the left and describe a semi-circle with the 
right hand. When the right hand comes to rest it should be 
near the left arm pointing to the elbow. Sometimes the sign 
is made the other way, by placing the right hand near the 
left elbow, as in the last position, first and moving it from 
left to right. XIV, 270. 

Note : Any part of the day may be indicated by stopping 
the hand in the sign when it points at the position of the sun 
at the designated time, as the hand is supposed to represent 
the course of the sun. 

Night. — Place the hands and arms in position as if about 
to sign for "day" but move the hand down and describe a 
semi-circle below the arm from right to left, thus representing 
the course of the sun during the period of time from set of sun 
to its rising. 

Morning. — Extend the right arm as in day, but Avith the 
open hand palm up; place the edge of the left open hand upon 
the forearm near the elbow. Or, 

(2) Instead of placing the left hand so far back place it on 
the wrist. XIV, 271. 



80 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Noon.— With the left hand against the right arm as in "day" 
hold the right "B" hand pointing directly overhead or pointed 
slightly out, indicating the position of the sun at noon. 

Evening, Night. — Eest the wrist with the bent right hand 
upon the edge of the left "B" hand and turn the hand down- 
ward. XIV, 272. 

Forenoon. — Indicate by passing the arm in the sign for 
"day" across that part of the arc between morning and noon. 

Afternoon. — Indicate by passing the arm in the sign for 
"day" across that part of the arc between noon and evening. 

Note : To indicate very early in the morning let the right 
hand point more down than straight out, according to the 
earliness of the hour. And in late at night likewise let the 
right hand point down more than usual. 

Sunrise. — Hold out the left open hand, palm down, to rep- 
resent the horizon; pass the right "O" hand from under the 
left and bring it up above the left close to the outer edge and 
thus represent the sun peeping up. 

Sunset. — Hold left hand as above but place the right "0" 
hand just above the edge of the left and drop it below. 

Now, Present. — Place the open hands pointing outward, 
palms up, in front, about the waist line ; drop them a little 
rather quickly. 

To-day. — First sign "day" and then follow with "now." 

To-morrow. — Place the right "A" hand against the right 
cheek with the thumb pointing backward; give the hand a 
twist outward so that the thumb, describing a semi-circle, 
points to the front while the hand is brought out beyond the 
face. XIV, 273. 

Yesterday. — Place the "Y" hand with the end of the thumb 
at the corner of the mouth; throw the hand back and bring 
the thumb against the cheek again near the ear, or carry 
it a little farther back and throw it over the shoulder. XIV, 
274. 

In a few days.— Place the "A" hand against the cheek as 
in "to-morrow;" give the hand a similar motion as in "to- 
morrow" but more slowly; gradually bring the fingers out 
one by one as in "few" (see preceding pages). Or, 

(2) Sign for "few," "days," and "after." "After" is 
signed as follows : XIV, 275. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 81 

After. — Place the left "B" or open hand in front, palm 
toward self and the right open hand in same position with 
palm of fingers against the back of the left-hand fingers ; hold 
the left hand still and push the right hand out and away from 
it. XIV, 276. Or, 

(2) Hold the left "B" hand palm down but with outer edge 
turned slightly down half way; across the back of it pass the 
right "B" hand so the edge strikes first the top edge of the 
left hand and then points suddenly down. 

Before. — Same position as in "after," but with the hands 
reversed so that the right hand is on the inside, and draw the 
right hand toward self. Or, 

(2) Hold the left open hand pointing upward and back 
of hand toward self ; right hand in position as above and draw 
toward self. XIV, 277. 

Daily, Every day. — Place the "A" hand against the cheek 
as in "to-morrow;" push it straight forward a little beyond 
the cheek; repeat the motion several times. Or, 

(2) Make sign for "every" (see preceding pages) and 
"day." XIV, 278. 

A few days ago. — Place "A" hand with the end of the thumb 
against corner of the mouth; holding the thumb still there, 
draw the hand back and gradually open out the fingers one 
by one until the hand assumes the position of "5." Or, 

(2) Sign "few," "days," and "ago." "Ago" is signed as 
follows : 

Ago. — Throw the right hand back over the right shoulder 
with the palm backward, same as past. 

Week. — Clap the hands together crosswise, raise the right 
forefinger to represent ' ' one. ' ' 

Next week, or In a week.— Same sign for week, but when 
the hand is raised to make "one" it is thrown forward to 
indicate it is in the future. Any number of weeks in the 
future may be indicated by making any number on the fingers 
and throwing the hand forward. 

Last week, A week ago. — Make sign for "week" and then 
throw hand back over shoulder, palm back. 

Month. — Hold out the left "G" hand, forefinger pointing 
upward; beginning at the upper end of the left forefinger, 
draw the end of the forefinger of the right "G" hand down 
its entire length. "Next month" is indicated by following 



82 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

the sign by the sign for "future" (see preceding pages), 
and last month is indicated by following the sign by that for 
"ago" (see above). XIV, 279. 

Weekly is indicated by repeating the sign for "week" two 
or three times, each time throwing the forefinger forward from 
the hand. 

Monthly is indicated by repeating the sign for "month" 
two or three times. 

Year. — Place the "S" hands one above the other; with the 
right hand now encircle the left, passing the hand outward, 
and bring to rest in original position. 

Yearly. — Strike the top of the left "S" hand with the bot- 
tom of the right "S" hand thrown outward against it, and 
as it strikes extend the forefinger of the right hand and move 
the hand outward beyond the left ; repeat two or three times. 
XIV, 280. 

Hour. — Upon the palm of the left open hand held straight 
out, representing the dial of a clock, place the right "G" hand 
with the forefinger pointing upward, representing the hand of 
the clock; with the right forefinger now circle the face of the 
palm as a hand would circle the face of a clock. XIV, 281. 

Note : Using the forefinger of the " G " hand almost any 
part of the hour may be indicated. Thus, fifteen minutes after 
any hour is indicated by pointing the forefinger at the posi- 
tion of the hand at 3 on the palm ; half after, by pointing the 
finger at 6, and so on. 

Minute, A moment, etc. — Place the forefinger of right "G" 
hand as in "hour" and move it the least bit to the right, indi- 
cating the space of the clock passed by the minute-hand in 
one minute. This sign may often be interpreted as "in a 
moment." For "a moment ago" move the forefinger backward 
the same space. 

Second.— Place the forefinger of "G" hand on the left palm 
as above where the second hand is on the dial of a watch and 
move it forward the space of a second. 

Always, Forever.— With arm and elbow at side, hold out the 
right "G" hand pointing outward; move the hand along out, 
describing a circle with the end of the forefinger. XIV, 282. 

Never.— Hold out the right "B" hand to the front straight 
from the side, and with the hand describe a complete circle 
from left to right, not moving the elbow out of its position; 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 83 

when the hand returns to its starting point draw it slightly 
to the right ; then throw it out at the right side. Some use the 
" G " instead of the " B ' - hand. XIV, 283. 

Once. — Dip the end of the forefinger of the right " G " hand 
against the palm of the left open hand, bringing it away 
quickly. 

Twice, Thrice, etc. — are indicated by making the sign twice 
or thrice and raising the . fingers to indicate the number of 
times. 

Sometimes. — Repeat the sign for "once" several times. The 
sign made slowly or rapidly indicates whether it is frequent or 
seldom. 

Again. — Holding out the bent right hand with palm partly 
up give it a slight twist, turning the palm toward the left, 
and strike the end against the open palm of the left hand. 
XIV, 284. 

Often. — Repeat the sign for "again" several times. 

First. — Hold the thumb of "A" hand up perpendicular and 
strike it with the forefinger of the right "G" hand. XIV, 285. 

Last. — Extend the little finger of the left "A" hand and 
with a downward motion strike it with the forefinger of the 
right "G" hand. XIV ; 286. 

Near. — Hold the left bent hand, palm toward self, slightly 
toward either side, toward the right side and draw the right 
open hand toward it so its palm approaches the back of the left 
hand. XIV, 287. 

Next (nearest). — Holding the left bent hand out in front, 
palm toward self, and the right open hand between it and the 
body, throw the right hand over the left and bring its palm 
quickly against the back of the left. XIV, 288. 

Next (after the first).— Hold out the left "L" hand with 
the forefinger of the right "G" hand pointed just over and 
across it; giving the wrist a twist bring the right forefinger 
around the end of the left forefinger and up against its un- 
derside. XIV, 289. 

Then. — Strike the end of the forefinger of the left " L " hand 
with the end of the forefinger of the right "G" hand. XIV, 
290. Or, 

(2) Holding the left "L" hand pointing toward the right 
strike the thumb with the forefinger of the right "G" hand; 
quickly close the left forefinger and drop the right hand down 



84 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

just outside of the left so the palm side of the right fingers 
barely touches the knuckles or middle joints of the left hand; 
then extend left forefinger again and strike it with the fore- 
finger of the right "G" hand. 

When. — Hold the forefinger of the left "G" hand pointing 
upward, palm side toward self; point the forefinger of the 
right "G" hand at its end; describe a circle with the right 
forefinger and then touch the end of the left forefinger with 
the end of the right forefinger. XIV, 291. 

During, While. — Hold the "G" hand straight out in front 
from the sides but back almost to the sides ; push both hands 
straight out, one on either side. XIV ; 292. 

Much. — Hold the "5" hands so their palms are toward each 
other, and draw them apart. It is usual to draw the left hand 
a little downward toward the left while the right hand is 
drawn upward toward the right. The extent to which they are 
drawn apart indicates the quantity. XV, 293. 

Little. — In the closed "0" hand rub the end of the thumb 
against the end of the forefinger. XV, 294. 

Small. — Hold the open hands out palm toward palm and 
press them toward each other, repeating several times. XV, 295. 

Large. — Hold the "L" hands palm to palm and draw them 
apart. XV, 296. 

Inch. — Extend, then bend the thumb of the left "A" hand 
and enclose the space between its end and middle joint be- 
tween the forefinger and thumb of the right hand. 

Foot. — Extend the thumbs of the "A" hands and then hold 
them together horizontally, thumb end to thumb end, and hold 
up one finger for "1." 

Measure. — Make sign for "foot" and move it along sepa- 
rating and touching the thumb ends. Hold the thumbs in the 
direction the measuring is supposed to be done. 

Yard. — Draw a yard along the arm, as one would in meas- 
uring cloth. 

Mile. — Hold out the right bent hand in front from the side 
and drop it; then lift it a little, move it forward and bring 
it down again. 

Monday.— Describe a small circle with the "M" hand. 

Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday are all made 
with the same motion of the hand as above (i. e., describing a 
small circle) using the "T," "W," "F," and "S" hands 
respectively. 



A MANUAL Ob' 8I0NS 85 

Thursday.— The "T" hand is quickly changed to "H" and 
the same motion is made. Some make the "H" only. 

Sunday. — Kaise the open hands, one on either side, to the 
level with the shoulders, palms outward. 

Spring. — Draw the crooked forefinger of the right "G" 
hand across the forehead, then sign for ' ' grow, ' ' i. e., push the 
right "&" hand up through the left "O" hand. 

Summer. — Draw the crooked forefinger of the "G" hand 
across the forehead. XV, 297. 

Winter. — Hold the "S" hands out to the front from the 
sides and shake the whole of the forearms and hands together 
as in "cold." 

Fall.— Hold the left "S" hand up near the left shoulder, 
doubling the arm; downward against the lower end of the 
forearm near the elbow pass the right open hand, palm down- 
ward, so the forefinger of the right hand brushes against 
the arm. XV, 298. 

Breakfast. — Sign "eat" (raise the right "&" hand to the 
mouth) and "morning" (see preceding pages). 

Dinner. — Sign "eat" as above, then "noon" (see preceding 
pages). 

Supper. — Sign "eat" as above, then "evening" (see preced- 
ing pages). 

Since. — Place the forefingers of the "G" hands above the 
right shoulder, end to end, but not touching; giving each a 
turn so the ends describe circles opposite each other, bring 
them both forward to the front. XV, 299. 

Not yet. — Same as "now" or "late," depending on use. 

Late. — Hold the right open hand pointing down from the 
elbow extending out at the side, and swing it back and forward 
from the wrist. XV, 300. 

Holiday.— Sign "idle" and "day." 

Beyond. — Place the open hands in front, palms toward self 
and together, so the palms of the fingers of the right are 
against the backs of the left fingers; lifting the right hand a 
little, carry it out some distance toward the front and drop it 
to original level. 

Place. — With the ends of the little fingers of the "I" hands 
meeting (thumbs at top) end to end, draw each away at the 
side and describe a half circle, bringing them to meet again 
nearer the body. 



86 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Where. — Extend the open hands, palm up, from the side out 
to the front and give them a side to side shake with a look of 
inquiry on the face. XV, 301. 

Here. — Bring open hands, palms up, near the body, end to 
end but not touching, and let each describe a small circle in 
opposite directions outward, coming toward each other again 
nearer the body. 

There. — Point to a distance. 

Center. — Describing a circle with the right open hand above 
the palm of the left open hand, drop it into the center of the 
palm. 

Yet, Still. — Place the right "Y" hand at the side and carry 
it out straight forward from the side. This also conveys the 
idea of continuity. XV, 302. 



ARTICLES OF FOOD, FRUIT, ETC. 

Food. — Make sign for "eat" and add "different," or 
"things." 

Bread. — Hold in front the left bent hand, thumb pointing 
outward; across the back of the fingers, draw back and forth 
the edge of the little finger of the right "B" hand. XVI, 303. 

Butter. — Holding the open left hand with the end pointing 
upward, brush the end of the " II " hand downward against the 
palm of the left. XVI, 304. 

Meat. — Grasp the fleshy part of the left hand between the 
thumb and forefinger, by the thumb and forefinger of the 
right hand. XVI, 305. 

Gravy. — Grasp the fleshy part of the palm near the little 
finger of the left hand with the forefinger and thumb of the 
right hand and draw them away from the hand, letting them 
close when they drop away. XVI, 306. Or, 

(2) Make a "spoon" with the right "C" hand and give 
it a slight twist as if dipping and emptying the spoon. 

Potatoes. — Making a "fork" of the right fore and middle 
finger of the right hand, stick it against the left "S" hand. 
Some hold the left hand in position of "&." XVI, 307. 

Salt. — Place the end of the right "H" hand against the lips; 
bring it away and down with a twist turning the palm side 
down and strike the end against the back end of the left "H" 
hand. XVI, 308. 

Pepper. — Draw the forefinger of the right "G" hand from 
left to right across the right eyebrow; bring the hand out to 
the right and let it assume the position of the open " O " hand, 
then throw it toward the imaginary plate as you would a salt 
shaker. 

Milk. — With the " S " hands make motion of milking. 

Cream. — Making a "spoon" of the right "C" hand, make 
motion of "skimming" across the back or palm of the left open 
hand. 

Cheese. — Place the fleshy parts of the hands, palm to palm, 
the right hand pointing to the left and the left to the right, 



88 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

so the fingers extend beyond the palms; with a twisting mo- 
tion rub the palms against each other. XVI, 309. 

Coffee. — Placing the " S " hands one on top of another, make 
a grinding motion as if turning a coffee mill. XVI, 310. 

Tea. — Trace the rim of the left "O" hand with the ends 
of the thumb and forefinger where they join in the extended 
"O" hand. XVI, 311. 

Corn. — Make motion of shelling the left forefinger with the 
right hand. "Boasting ears" may be indicated by making the 
motion of eating corn off the right forefinger as a "cob." 
XVI, 312. 

Tomatoes. — Make sign for "red" (i . e., draw the forefinger 
of the .right "G" hand downward against the lower lip); 
place the end of the right thumb in center of the left palm 
and with this as a pivot make a circle on the palm with end 
end of the forefinger. Or, 

Draw the end of the right thumb around the outside of the 
left "S" hand as in slicing. 

Beans. — Pass the right closed " " hand along the length of 
the forefinger of the left "G" hand, with a pecking motion. 

Note: This sign is used indiscriminately for rice, oatmeal, 
and all kinds of grain. 

Peas. — Make sign as above ; then, grasping the left fore- 
finger near the knuckle with the thumb and forefinger of the 
right hand, pass the thumb down its length as in motion of 
hulling the peas. 

Onion. — Eub the right fist at the corner of the right eye. 
XVI, 313. 

Radish. — Make sign for "red" (see "tomatoes above) and 
then draw the left forefinger between the thumb and fore- 
finger of the right hand to indicate its shape. 

Flour. — Make sign for "grain" (see above), then rub palms 
of the hands together. XVI, 314. 

Fish. — Extend the right open hand, pointing out, thumb 
edge up ; place the end of the left open hand against the wrist 
of the right, and work the right hand like the tail of a fish. 

Cake. — Place the right "5" hand against the palm of the 
open left, so the ends of the fingers form almost a circle ; lift 
the hand away a little, at the same time drawing the ends of 
the fingers closer together but not touching. Precede or fol- 
low this with the sign for sweet, i. e., draw the end of the 
rierht "H" hand downward across the mouth. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 89 

Biscuit. — Same as for cake (above) except make the sign 
for "warm" or "hot" instead of for "sweet," as follows: 
Hold the right hand over mouth and draw away quickly as if 
the hand were warm or hot. 

Pie. — Place the bent right hand down against the left palm 
so the fingers point toward the left ; lift the right hand, turn 
it so the fingers point straight out and let the hand drop on 
the palm again and the two lines thus made will indicate the 
size and shape of a slice of pie. XVI, 315. 

Doughnut. — Bite "R" between the teeth. 

Toast.— With the right "V" hand used as a fork "stab" first 
against the back of the left open hand, then against the palm 
of same. 

Pickle. — Make sign for "sour" (carry the forefinger of the 
right "G" hand to the mouth and make a slight puckering 
thereof) ; then down the length of the forefinger of the left 
"G" hand draw the end of the right forefinger as if to split it. 

Cracker. — Throw the right "S" hand against the left elbow, 
holding the left "S" hand up near the right shoulder. XVI, 
316. 

Oysters. — Hold the hands palm to palm ; draw the right hand 
away and up; then with a motion like cutting with a hatchet 
throw the right hand downward against and beyond the left 
so that the palms rub as the hands pass. XVI, 317. 

Soup. — Making a bowl with the left hand and a spoon with 
the right, make a motion of dipping the soup from the left 
hand to the mouth with the right. 

Sugar. — Draw the end of the open right hand downward 
across the mouth. 

Nut. — Bite the end of the right thumb of "A" hand, nail 
down, and strike the top of the left "S" hand with the 
right "S." 

Peanut. — Sign for "nut;" then with the thumb and fore- 
finger of the right hand grasp the end of the forefinger of 
the left "G" hand and give a twisting motion as in breaking 
the end of a peanut. 

Apple. — Place the right "S" hand at the corner of the 
mouth, so that the middle joint of the forefinger touches it, 
and give the hand a twisting motion several times. XVI, 318. 

Peach. — Bring the hands, one from either side, to the mouth, 
making "&" with both of them; or, 



90 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

(2) With the "&" hands together in front make motion of 
tearing a peach apart. 

Pear. — Grasp the left "&" hand in the fingers of the right 
and lightly draw the right hand off the left so it assumes the 
position of "&" when clear of the left; then make a "stem"' 
on the left hand by placing the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand against the end of the left " & " hand, which is not moved 
during the sign. 

Grape. — Against the back of the left "&" hand strike the 
ends of the fingers of the right bent "G" hand; repeat the 
motion several times, each time a little farther down on the 
left hand till the fingers of the right have passed the knuckles 
of the left. XVI, 319. 

Fruit. — Sign as in "grow" (push the right "&" hand up- 
ward through the left "0" hand); when through, quickly 
make left "&" hand and grasp it over the back with the 
fingers of the right and draw them down and off the entire 
length of the left hand. 

Strawberry. — Make sign for "red" (draw forefinger across 
lip) ; grasp the thumb of the left "A" hand from the back with 
the right hand so that the fingers of the right clasp those of 
the left and the end of the right thumb nail rests against the 
back of the knuckle of the left thumb, thus indicating the 
size of the berry. 

Currant. — Sign ' ' red ' ' same as above ; then grasp the little 
finger of the left "I" hand as above, only rest thumb against 
palm side of little finger. 

Banana. — Make motion of peeling the forefinger of the left 
"G" hand as if it were a banana, then sign "yellow," (give 
the right "Y" hand a twisting shake several times). 

Orange.— Holding the left " S " hand in front, place the end 
of the thumb of the right "Y" hand against the back of the 
left hand, and draw it across, downward, the width of the 
hand. Some add "yellow" as above. Others add "sweet" 
(see preceding pages). XVI, 320. 

Lemon. — Same as above, then add "sour" (see preceding' 
pages). Or, 

(2) Hold the "S" hand against the mouth as if it held a 
lemon and contract it as if squeezing a lemon. 

Watermelon.— "Thump" the back of the left "S" hand. 
Some add "green" (give a twisting shake to the right "G" 
hand). 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 91 

Muskmelon. — "Thump" as above; then along the back of 
the left open hand draw the thumb and forefinger, an inch 
apart, to indicate the ridges along the side of the muskmelon. 

Pumpkin. — "Thump" as above and add "yellow" (see 
above). 

Cabbage. — Strike the sides of the head with the wrists of the 
"A" hands, one on either side. XVI, 321. 

Turnip. — Kub the nail side of the thumb of the right "A" 
hand in the center of the palm of the open left hand. 

Molasses. — Draw the forefinger of the right "G" hand 
across the width of the mouth from left to right (knuckle to 
end). 

Gum. — Crook the forefinger of the right "G" hand and 
place the crook of the joint at the corner of the mouth and 
pull it down and repeat the motion several times, the mouth 
making a chewing motion also. 

Beer, Drinker, Drunkard. (Including intoxicating drink.) — 
Throw the right "Y" hand against the mouth, end of thumb 
striking the mouth. The same sign repeated indicates one is 
addieted to drink. By adding "-er, " the sign becomes "drunk- 
ard." XVI, 322. 

Wine. — Rub the right "W" hand against the cheek. 

Vinegar. — Strike the mouth with the forefinger side of the 
right "V" hand. 

Egg. — Cross the fingers of the "H" hands in front of you; 
drop them and let the hands fall apart. It is better to strike 
the top fingers against the bottom as if cracking the shell. 



ANIMALS 

Animal. — Lock the ends of the fingers, or place them end 
to end (not necessarily touching) and place hands, palm to 
breast ; move the hands outward and back following motion of 
chest in breathing. XVII, 323. 

Horse. — Place the "H" hands against the head, one on either 
side, pointing upward; work them backward and forward a 
few times, indicating the ears. XVII, 324. 

Mule, Donkey. — Same, but use the whole hand instead of 
the "H" hand, to indicate size of ears. 

Cow. — Make "horns" on the sides of the head with the "Y" 
hands. XVII, 325. 

Dog. — Pat the knee and snap the fingers as in calling a dog. 

Cat. — Place the closed "0" hands on the lip, one on either 
side of the mouth, and with thumbs and forefingers pull im- 
aginary "whiskers." XVII, 326. 

Sheep. — Using the right "V" hand as shears, lay the. fin- 
gers, backs down, on the upper side of the left forearm and 
work the "V" as shears, moving the fingers up the arm toward 
the elbow. XVII, 327. 

Hog, Pig. — Place the back of the open right hand under the 
chin with fingers pointing halfway between the left and the 
front and shake the end of the hand up and down. XVII, 328. 

Goat. — Place the back of the right "V" hand against the 
chin so the knuckles touch the end of the chin; quickly raise 
the right hand now and strike the backs of the fingers in the 
bent "V" against the forehead, then straighten out the fin- 
gers, bringing them upward and outward and throwing the 
hand away from the forehead. 

Bird.— With the knuckle of the forefinger of the "Gr" hand 
against the mouth and the finger pointing outward, bring the 
ends of the forefinger and thumb together to represent the bill, 
then work the bent arms as wings. XVII, 329. 

Chicken, specifically A Hen. — Make bill as above; then 
with the fingers of the bent "V" hand make scratching motion 
in the palm of the open left hand. Or, 



.1 ilM2W.lL OF HIGNiS 93 

(2) Make bill as above and then with the forefinger of 
the right "G" hand slash across the right side of the neck. 

Cock. — Make bill; then place the right "3" hand (thumb 
and two fingers) with the thumb against the forehead to 
represent the cock's comb. XVII, 330. 

Turkey. — Grasp the bridge of the nose between the thumb 
and forefinger of the right hand and pull away with a pinch- 
ing motion; then hold the forefinger of the right "G" hand 
pendant from the breast. 

Duck. — Make bill with two fingers instead of one, indicating 
wider bill. XVII, 331. 

Goose. — Make bill as in "duck;" then stretch out the fore- 
arm in a crooked motion to represent the neck of the goose. 

Pigeon. — Make bill; then bring right "B" hand up, thumb 
side against the chin, and lower it in a half circle to the breast, 
indicating the protruding breast of the pigeon. 

Quail. — Make bill; then "bore" the forefinger of the right 
"G" hand in the side of the neck, or bring the closed "G" 
hand up and draw it behind the ear. 

Robin. — Make bill; then "red" (draw forefinger across 
lower lip) and then indicate breast. 

Elephant. — Extend the whole arm from the front of the 
face, pushing the hand first up near the face and then outward 
and down to represent the trunk. 

Camel. — Place the "C" hand, palm up, in front of the neck, 
then draw it out, tracing in the air the shape of the camel's 
neck. 

Lion. — Place the bent "5" hand above the forehead, palm 
side down, and draw it above and over the head toward the 
back, shaking the hand at the same time. XVII, 332. 

Tiger. — Make sign for "cat" (see above) and then with the 
forefinger and thumb held an inch apart indicate the stripes 
by rubbing against the body. 

Leopard. — Make sign for "cat" (see above) and then strike 
the side with the ends of the fingers of the bent "5" hand to 
indicate the leopard's spots. 

Zebra. — Make sign for "horse" (see above) ; then with 
thumb and forefinger as in "tiger" represent stripes against 
the sides of the body. 

Wolf. — Push the forefingers of the "G" hands (one on 
either side of the mouth) upward from the chin, indicating 



94 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

the wolf's fangs; then bring the bent "5" hand in front of 
Ihe face, drawing it outward from the nose to indicate that 
shape of the wolf's nose. 

Fox. — Grasp the end of the nose with the "P" hand and 
work the rest of the fingers. 

Squirrel. — Bend the fingers of the "V" hands and place 
them up before the mouth, so the fingers of one hand point 
toward those of the other; throw the ends of the opposite fin- 
gers together several times. XVII, 333. 

Rabbit. — Cross the "H" hands so the right rests upon the 
left; the right points toward the left and the left toward the 
right; work the fingers forward and back, each in the same 
direction. XVII, 334*. 

Deer. — Make "horns" of the "5" hands, one on either side 
of the head, and then extend the hands outward to indicate 
the size of the horns. XVII, 335. 

Bear. — Cross the arms so the right hand will be near the 
left elbow and the left hand near the right elbow, as in hug- 
ging; draw the arms apart so the fingers of the hands will 
scratch along the arms as they come apart. XVII, 336. " 

Monkey. — Strike the hands against the front of the body, 
near the side, so the ends of the fingers scratch upward, turn- 
ing them inward as the hands rise against the body; repeat 
the scratching motion and at the same time put the end of 
the tongue between the lower front teeth and the lip, pushing 
it outward to indicate the shape of the monkey's chin. XVIT, 
337. 

Snake. — Holding the right "V" hand down at the side, 
fingers pointing forward, extend the hand along in a zigzag 
way to indicate the motion of the snake crawling. Or, indi- 
cate the same motion with the right "3" hand, with the thumb 
pointing up. Or, 

(2) With the right elbow resting in palm of left hand, 
make a coil sign with the right "G" hand forward. 

Frog. — Place the right "V" hand against the throat; then 
Avith the "V" hands held one beyond the other and both 
pointing toward the left, bend and unbend the two fingers 
of each hand, representing the motion of a frog's legs in swim- 
ming. 

Butterfly. — Lock the thumbs with the hands crossed, backs 
down, (the hands being on opposite sides) ; or, place together 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 95 

the ends of the thumbs of open hands, palms down, and work 
the hands as the wings of a butterfly. XVII, 338. 

Worm. — Wriggle the forefinger of the right "G" hand on 
left palm to represent motion of worm in crawling. XVII, 339. 

Rat. — Bub the "R" hands upward across the side of the 
nose, or use both "R" hands in the same way. XVII, 340. 

Mouse. — Rub the end of the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand in the same way as above in "rat," or use both fore- 
fingers. 

Bee. — Place the end of the forefinger of the right "G" hand 
against the right cheek; then remove and brush the open 
hand, edge against the cheek, outward. 

Fly. — Make motion with the right hand on. left arm as of 
reaching out and catching a fly off the table or in the air. 

Spider. — Cross the hands, fingers pointing outward, and 
clasp the little fingers ; work the fingers like the legs of a spider, 
extending the hands forward the while. XVII, 341. 

Insect. — Place the thumbs of the open hands, end to end, 
palm down and fingers pointing outward, and, bending the ends 
of the fingers, work them like the legs of an insect. 

Note : The diminutive of animals is indicated by preceding 
or following the sign for the particular animal by that for 
"baby" (folding the arms across and indicating action of 
holding a baby). 

Specifically "Bull," and by inference the male of animals, 
is indicated by rubbing the "A" hand in a circle on the fore- 
head, the fingers against the head. Or use the "bent" hand 
with finger ends against the forehead, the same way. 

Fish. — Extend the right "B" hand in front straight out 
from the waist, or a little above it ; then place the end of the 
left open hand at right angles against the wrist of the right, 
and then wiggle the right hand from the wrist as if it were the 
tail of a fish. XVII, 342. 



THE1W0RLDIAND NATURE 

The World. — Placing the right "W" hand, fingers pointing 
outward, first upon the left "S" hand, encircle it with the 
right, starting the hand outward. XVIII, 343. 

The Earth, or The Globe. — Hold the left "S" hand as if it 
were grasping an axis held between the thumb and middle 
finger of the right hand; move both hands as if the left were 
turning or swinging on this imaginary axis. This sign is also 
used to mean "geography." XVIII, 344. 

Land. — Bub the ends of the thumb over the ends of the 
fingers, using both hands. Sometimes the sign for "farm" 
or "country" is added (rub the open right hand on the under 
side of the left forearm.) XVIII, 345. 

Sky, The Heavens. — Hold the "B" hands up in front, their 
ends pointing out and touching; draw them apart toward the 
side and down, so they describe the) arc of the sky. 

Sun. — Holding the forefinger of the right " G " hand pointing 
up toward the sky, describe a circle in the air with it; then 
bring hand to position of "&" turned and pointing down; 
then bring the hand downward, while the fingers are opened 
to "5," thus representing the beams of light from the sun; in 
this motion raise the hand back with a vibrating motion. 

Moon. — Hold the rght "C" hand over the side of the right 
eye and looking up at the sky lift the hand, still in position of 
"C," upward toward an imaginary moon, and end as in "sun," 
above. 

Star. — Hold the "G" hands up in front, pointing the fore- 
fingers upward toward the stars; bring the right hand back 
a little and then strike the left forefinger with the right, 
carrying it along the length of the finger; do the same with 
the other hand and repeat this motion several times. 

Light. — Hold the "&" hands out in front and somewhat 
elevated, pointing out and touching at the ends; push the 
hands out and to the side, opening the hands to "5." XXII, 407. 

Bright and Clear. — Hold the "5" hands together, end to 
end in front; draw them apart, lifting them upward and out 
toward the side, while the fingers are worked up and down 
as in playingr a piano. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 97 

Light (that which throws beams). — Place the right "&" 
hand upon the thumb of the left "A" hand, then extend the 
right hand outward, opening the fingers to "5," and then 
spreading the hand out and around. 

Dark. — Draw the forefinger of the right "G" hand across 
the right eyebrow from left to right; then bringing the open 
hands, palm to self, up in front, pass the right before the face 
toward the left and the left similarly toward the right so thej< 
pass each other in front of the face. The first part of the sign, 
drawing finger over eyebrow, is usually omitted. XVIII, 346. 

Clouds. — Draw the forefinger across the eyebrow as above; 
then hold the " 5 " hands out in front elevated and encircle one 
with the other while they are moved about in front of the face. 

Water. — Strike the mouth several times with the right " W" 
hand (the forefinger against the mouth). XVIII, 347. 

Rain. — Sign for "water;" then bring the "5" hands elevated 
toward the side, fingers pointing out and palms down ; drop the 
hands, lifting and dropping them several times in succession, 
the fingers thus indicating the falling drops of rain. XVIII 
348. 

Snow. — Make sign for ' ' white, ' ' thus : place open hand 
against the breast and draw it away, closing the fingers against 
it, so that when it is free of the body it is in position of "&;" 
then end with hands same as above in "rain," omitting 
' ' water. ' ' 

Ice, Freeze. — Hold the "5" hands out, palms down; drop 
the hands downward a few inches rather forcibly, at the same 
time quickly bending the finger ends and stopping them rig- 
idly bent as the hands are brought to a stop. XVIII, 349. 

Lightning. — Hold the forefinger of the right "G" hand high, 
pointing upward, and then bring it down quickly zigzag 
through the air. 

Thunder. — Place the right forefinger to the ear, bring the 
"S" hands out to the front from the sides; jerk the right hand 
toward self and throw the left out toward the side, and then 
reverse the movement of the hands, repeating the motion sev- 
eral times. 

Earthquake. — Sign "earth" (see above) and finish with 
hands as in "thunder." 

Mountain. — Strike the back of the left "S" hand with the 
back of the right "S" hand; then extend the open hands, 



98 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

palms down, toward the left, tilt them and lift them upward, 
following the side of an imaginary mountain ; turn to cross 
the top and then hring the hands down on the other side of the 
"mountain," thus having traced its shape with the hands. 
Note that the left hand proceeds first and the right follows it. 

Peak. — Make "mountain," and finish with raising the "G" 
hands up from the sides and closing at a point. 

Hill. — The sign is similar but the hands are not lifted so 
high. 

Valley. — Place the right open hand elevated on the right 
side and the left similarly on the left, the palms outward; 
draw both hands down to meet in front of the waist-line, the 
hands thus tracing the sides of two opposite hills or moun- 
tains. 

River. — Make sign for "water" (see above); then bring 
the left "4" hand out to the front from the side, palm down, 
fingers pointing diagonally away from the body toward the 
left; from making the sign "water" bring the right "4" hand 
down to the front in similar position and pointing in the same 
direction as the left, somewhat behind it; then move both 
hands diagonally toward the left, and as the hands move for- 
ward shake the finger .5 up and down unevenly to represent 
the flowing of the water. 

Spring. — Make sign for "water," then push the right "&" 
hand up through the left "0" hand and as it comes up change 
to "5" hand and work the fingers to represent flowing water. 

Grass.— Push the right "&" hand up through the left "0" 
hand; then carry it out in position of "G" and pass it over an 
imaginary surface, giving it a shaking motion to indicate the 
green surface. 

Flower.— Hold the "S" or the end of the "&" hand directly 
under the nose as if holding a bunch of flowers there to smell. 
Some make this sign first under one nostril and then the other. 
Some place the end of the "&" hand under the nose and then 
open out the fingers to nearly "5" hand. XVIII, 350. 

Blossom. — Sign for "flower;" then bring the "&" hands 
together, ends pointing upward, and open them out to "5" 
hands, thus indicating the opening of the flower. 

Wind. — Holding the hands up in front with palm toward 
palm, wave them first to one side and then to the other, with 
more or less energy according to the intensity of the wind. 



A MANUAL OF SI0N8 99 

Field or Garden. — Place the ends of the "5" hands together 
so that the ends lock like the ends of a rail fence; draw the 
hands apart toward the sides and bring each around toward 
the body, indicating a fenced piece of ground, and then sign 
for "grow" (push the "&" hand up through the left "0" 
hand and then spread the fingers out to "5"). 

Tree. — Let the right elbow rest in the left palm, the fore- 
arm extending straight up and the hand as in "5;" twist the 
hand with a shaking motion rapidly several times. XVIII, 351. 

Bush. — Hold both open hands, palm toward palm, pointing 
upward, in front; rub one up against the other and reverse, a 
few times, or "little tree." 

Vine. — With the "G" hand moving upward in a snake-like 
way represent the course of a climbing vine ; then spread both 
open hands upward and outward. 

Grapevine. — Make "Grape" sign; then "Vine." 

Gold. — Pinch the lobe of the right ear with the thumb and 
forefinger, then bring the "Y" hand out to the front and give 
it a shaking motion several times. 

Silver. — Make "white" (place palm of right hand against 
breast and draw it outward, hand assuming the position of 
("&"); then bring the hands together, making a hollow of 
them; shake as if they contained something to jingle. 

Tin. — Strike under the chin with the back of the right "S" 
hand; then grasp the end of the open left hand with the fin- 
gers of the right and give a motion as if shaking or bending 
tin — the left hand representing the tin. 

Metal. — Strike the back of the fingers of the left "4" hand 
with the bottom of the right "S" hand, striking it across the 
fingers from the forefinger to the little finger. 

Iron. — Strike the forefinger of the left "G" hand with the 
bottom of the right "S" hand. XVIII, 352. 

Electricity. — The sign for this word is not uniform. One 
sign used by most is to bend the forefingers and strike the 
bent ends of the middle joints together. 

Trolley car. — With the forefinger of the left hand repre- 
senting the feed wire make a sort of grooved wheel with the 
fore and middle fingers of the right hand bent and run, them 
along under this "feed wire." Some just run the "E" of the 
right "E" hand along the left forefinger. 



THE DEITY AND RELIGION 

God. — Elevating the right "6" hand, point it outward, 
then draw it backward and downward toward self; the end 
then points up toward heaven. Some use whole open hand. 
XIX, 353. 

Lord. — Place the right "L" hand up near the left shoulder 
and carry it diagonally down to the other side of the body 
near the waist; then finish with sign for "rule," i. e., move 
the right open hand, extended at arm's length in front from 
the side, over the left, bringing the left hand up against the 
body. XIX, 354. 

Heaven. — Both "B" hands touch at the ends in front and 
somewhat elevated on a level with the head ; draw them apart 
toward the sides; bring the left hand back, twisting it so as 
to leave the palm outward and pass right open hand under left, 
turning it upward, and raise it until it shows above the left 
hand. 

Christ. — With the "5" hands in front, pointing outward, 
palm toward palm, bend the middle finger of the right hand 
toward the left, and strike the center of the left palm with it ; 
withdraw it and repeat the motion with the left hand against 
the right. Note that the fingers thus striking the center of 
the palm indicate the nails driven in our Saviour's hands. 
XIX, 355. 

Priest. — Place the ends of the forefingers of the "G" hands, 
one at either side near the shoulder; draw them down held 
against the body until they reach just above the waist-line, 
then draw them toward the center till they meet. XIX, 358. 
Or, 

(2) Placing the "4" hand against the breast, palm to self 
and fingers pointing up, draw down nearly to waist; place 
hand again at breast, but fingers pointing toward the left, 
then draw across breast to the right. 

Devil.— Place the ends of the thumbs of the "3" hands at 
side of the head, the forefingers and middle fingers pointing 
outward; bend and unbend the fingers, indicating the sup- 
posed horns of his Satanic majesty. XIX, 359. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 101 

Hell.— Sign "devil," then with the right "G" hand pointing 
down let the hand descend as far as it can. 

Swear, Curse. — Bring the palm of the "5" hand up to the 
mouth, closing it to "S;" draw it away and bring it down 
with some force. XIX, 360. 

Idol. — Draw the "C" or, better, the bent forefinger of the 
right "G" hand down across the face for picture; with the 
"I" hands outline in the air a supposed image, and put hands 
in attitude of prayer. 

Bible. — Sign for "Christ" (see preceding pages); then 
"book," placing the hands palm to palm for the backs of a 
book and opening them. 

Moses. — Place the thumb and forefinger against the sides 
of the head (one on either side near the temple) ; change to 
the position of the closed "0" hand as you draw them away 
from the head. 

Abraham. — Holding the left arm against the breast, the hand 
near the right shoulder, strike the outside of the forearm near 
the elbow with the right "A" hand. 

Saviour. — Cross the "A" hands at the wrists as if the hands 
were bound, and then bring the hands apart to indicate "free- 
dom" and add the sign for "-er" to indicate the person. 

Catholic. — Make the sign of the cross upon the forehead 
with the right "N" hand. 

Quaker. — Clasp the hands together, then rotate the thumbs, 
one around the other. 

Baptize. — Make sign for "water," then make motion of 
sprinkling water on the forehead; or (2) bring the "A" hands 
toward the right and make motion of immersing imaginary 
person. For Baptist make the second sign for "baptize" and 
"-er" to indicate the person. XIX, 361. 

Methodist. — Bend the fingers of the right "V" hand and 
place them in the left palm like "kneel." 

Presbyterian. — Place the ends of the fingers of the right 
"V" hand in the palm of the left, or strike the palm with the 
right "P" hand. 

Episcopal. — Bending the left arm against the body so the 
hand comes up near the right shoulder, place the forefinger 
of the right "G" hand against the outside of the wrist, then 
swing it down and around and strike it against the elbow, 
thus indicating the sleeves of the surplice. XIX, 362. 



102 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Note : Iii each case where the person is meant, add the 
"-er" sign as given under Occupations of Mankind." 

Christian.— Sign for "Christ;" then "friend," "follower," 
or "believer" (see preceding pages.) 

Spirit, or Ghost. — Place the slightly bent left hand, palm 
toward self, on a level with the breast, and the right hand, 
same position, on a level with the waist-line ; lift the right hand 
and lower the left (the right on the outside and left inside, 
at the same time let both hands assume "&" position; the 
right hand stops when it reaches the height of the face and 
left reaches the waist-line. XIX, 356. 

Holy Ghost. — Sign "Ghost" as above and follow with 
"Holy" (see preceding pages). Or make "Holy" and 
"Ghost." 

Church, Chapel. — Place the right "C" hand on the back of 
the left "S" hand, thumb next the back. XIX, 357. Or, 

(2) Place ends of the "B" hands together to indicate roof 
of house, then make sign for Sunday, i. e., raise hands at front 
of shoulders pointing upward, with the palms outward (liter- 
ally, "Sunday house"). 

Prophet. — Place the ends of the fingers of the "V" hand 
on the face astride the nose and under the eyes (for "see") ; 
then holding the left "B" hand in front, palm toward self, 
push the "V" through the left hand between the middle and 
third fingers which are parted to let the hand pass; finally 
end with open hands down against the body to indicate the 
person. Some pass the fingers under the left hand instead 
of between the fingers. 

Worship. — Sign "kneel" (place the bent fingers of the 
right "V" hand in the palm of the left hand, the fingers thus 
representing the bent knees) ; then place hands in attitude of 
prayer or supplication and then sign "serve" (with the open 
hands in front, palms up, move them to one side and then to 
the other). 



COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES 

Note. The sign given usually (unless otherwise specified) 
indicates the country. To indicate the inhabitant or individual 
follow with the sign for"-er" as in occupations indicating the 
person, i. e., with the palms toward self draw them against the 
body. 

Nation. — Place the end of the fingers of the right "N" hand 
upon the back of the left "S" hand, withdraw them, describe 
a circle above the hand and let the fingers again rest on the 
left hand. XX, 363. 

America, signifying The Union. — With palms toward self, 
lock the ends of the fingers of the "5" hands so they are 
crossed, one above the other (like rails on a fence), and draw- 
ing the hands toward the left, swing them around the front in 
a semi-circle to the right side. XX, 364. Or, 

(2) With the right "A" hand, thumb up, describe a cir- 
cle on the back of the left hand. 

The United States. — Holding the " U " hand out give it a cir- 
cular motion and then follow with "S" in a similar motion. 

England. — Beach the right hand across the back of the left 
open hand and grasp the fleshy part of the hand (so the right 
palm rests on the back of the left hand) and draw it toward 
self. XX, 365. 

Scotland. — Bring the "5" hands up in front, palms toward 
self, the palm of the right hand resting against the back of 
the left in such a way that the fingers of both hands cross at 
an angle representing an "X;" let the hands drop away to- 
ward the sides. Note that the fingers Avhen thus held represent 
the plaid. XX, 366. 

(2) Place back of the extended right hand across the left 
arm; draw it across and then turning the hand over repeat, 
representing plaids on arm. 

Ireland. — With the right "V" hand at rest just above the 
back of the left "S" hand, describe a circle around it with 
the "V" and then bring the end of the "V" down on the 
baek of the left. XX, 367. 



104 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

France. — Holding out the "F" hand well toward the left, 
draw it across in front of self from left to right, giving the 
hand a twist meanwhile so the hand is changed from a position 
of thumb on top to palm down. 

Germany. — Cross the hands in front, diagonally, so the wrist 
of the right "5" hand rests upon the wrist of the left and 
work the fingers of both hands. XX, 368. 

Holland. — Place the thumb of the "Y" hand pointing out- 
ward, against the mouth, and draw it downward a distance 
and then out, representing the long stem and bowl of a pipe. 

Denmark. — Describe a circle with the "D" hand in front of 
the forehead. 

Norway. — Describe a motion with the "N" hand in front of 
the forehead. 

Sweden. — Describe a circle with the "S" hand in front of 
the forehead. 

Spain. — Lock the forefingers of the "G" hands under the 
chin. XX, 369. 

Italy. — With the little finger of the "I" hand trace a cross 
upon the center of the forehead. 

Rome. — Place the ends of the fingers of the "N" hand 
against the center of the forehead; lift it away and bring it 
down, placing it upon the end of the nose. Note that the ends 
of the fingers trace the outline of the prominent nose. XX, 370. 

Greece. — Place the forefinger of the "G" hand upon the 
nose, pointing upward, letting the knuckle rest between the 
eyes, and then draw the finger down the length of nose. Note 
that this indicates the straight nose of the Greek. XX, 371. 

Turkey. — Place the closed " C " hand a little above the fore- 
head, thus representing the crescent. 

Switzerland. — Place the end of the right "B" hand against 
the forehead; withdraw it, twist the hand around so the palm 
is out and strike the side of the head with the back of the 
hand. 

Russia. — Place the "C" hands against the opposite sides of 
the waist. 

Egypt. — Place the end of the open right hand on the end of 
the nose ; withdraw it, describe circle above the nose, and bring 
the end of the hand at rest on the nose as at first. 

Africa. — Place the end of the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand upon the end of the nose, withdraw and describe a circle 
above it and bring to rest again as at first. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 105 

Negro. — Place the fingers of the "N" hand upon the end of 
the nose, and rock it from side to side with a twisting motion. 
XX, 372. 

Europe. — Describe a circle before the face with the right 
"E" hand. 

Asia, China.— Place the ends of the forefingers of the "G" 
hands, one at the corner of either eye, and push upward a 
little, giving the eyes an almond shape. Or simply place the 
end of the forefinger on the temple and twist it once or 
twice. XX, 373. 

Canada. — Grasp the coat lapel (or an imaginary lapel) with 
the right hand and give it a little shake. 

North America.— Make "N" then "A," giving the hands a 
shaking or circular motion. 

South America.— Same with "S" and "A." 

New England.— Pass the "E" hand across the length of the 
palm of the open left hand from the finger end to the palm. 

New York.— Pass the "Y" hand across the length of the 
left palm from the heel to the finger ends. XX, 374. 

Washington (both the man and the city).— Place the end 
of the right "W" hand on the right shoulder; bring it out and 
give it a circular motion up and down. "When the city is meant, 
sign "Washington," then "city." XX, 375. 

Chicago. — Give the "C" hand a shaking motion, or circle 
through the air with it. 

California. — This State is sometimes indicated by the sign 
for "gold," i. e., pinch the lobe of the right ear and bring the 
"Y" hand out and give it a twisting, shaking motion. Or, 
leaving the ear, have the "Y" hand, after making a twisting 
motion, strike the palm of the left hand. 

Indian. — Place the end of the thumb and forefinger of the 
closed "0" hand on the end of the nose and then carry it 
around and place it similarly against the ear. XX, 376. 

Jew. — Placing the fingers of the bent "5" hand on the chin, 
draw them down and off, letting the hand assume the "&" 
position as it leaves the chin. XX, 377. 

Note : Cities like Philadelphia, Baltimore, Omaha, etc., are 
indicated locally by use of the initial letter, usually giving it 
a twisting or shaking motion. Only the few larger cities have 
such a recognized sign throughout the country. But locally 
nearly all cities have their signs. 



PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS 

Among. — Hold the left bent "5" hand in front with the fin- 
gers pointing upward; with the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand pointing down move it in and out among the fingers of 
the left. 

Around. — Hold the left " & " hand pointing upward and cir- 
cle it several times with the forefinger of the right "G" 
hand pointing down. 

At.— Strike the back of the left "B" hand, pointing upward, 
with the right "B" hand. XXI, 381. 

Before (in time). — See preceding pages. 

Before (in place). — Hold the open hands pointing upward, 
in front, one on right side, one on left, palm toward palm, 
and 5 or 6 inches apart; turn both hands at the same time, 
carrying the left to the front and the right toward self, still 
keeping them palm to palm. 

After (in time). — See preceding pages. 

After (in place). — Same as "behind ;" see below. 

Behind. — Place the "A" hands in front, one on right side 
and the other on the left, thumbs pointing upward; bring the 
right hand toward self around behind the left, the latter re- 
maining stationary. To signify behind in accomplishment, 
draw hand back indicating one is far "back. XXI, 382. 

Below. — Hold the right open hand under the left, palms of 
both down; move the right around in a circle. 

Under. — (If stationary). "With the left open hand, palm 
down, in front, and right "A" hand between it and self, let the 
right hand pass down under the left. Or place the "A" hand 
under the left and describe a circle, with it. XXI, 383. 

Under. — (If in motion). Same position and movement, but 
carry the right hand completely under the left and let the 
thumb come up above its edge. 

Beside.— Hold the "A" hands in front, one beside the other, 
thumbs pointing upward. 

Beside (more).— Hold the left "&" hand in front pointing 
toward the right; bring the end of the right "&" hand to 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 107 

meet the end of the left, lifting it from a position in front 
toward the right side and then to meet the left. 

Between. — Hold the left "C" hand in front, the opening 
up, and between the thumb and forefinger place the right 
"B" hand held edgewise; let the right hand move from sid^ 
to side between the thumb and forefinger, striking first one 
and then the other. XXI, 384. 

Except, But. — Holding the left "G" hand in front with the 
forefinger pointing upward, grasp it with the thumb and 
forefinger of the right "G" hand, lifting it a little. XXI, 385. 

But (as a conjunction). — Cross the ends of the forefingers of 
the "G" hands pointing outward, and draw them apart, to- 
ward the sides. 

By. — Hold the "A" hands in front, side by side, the right 
a little higher than the left ; bend both hands toward the left, 
twisting them from the wrists, so the thumbs point over toward 
the left. XXI, 386. 

For. — Place the end of the forefinger of the right "G" hand 
at the right side of the forehead; with a twisting motion to 
the hand bring it down and, pointing the forefinger straight 
out, push it forward some distance. XXI, 387. 

From. — Crook the forefinger of the right "G" hand, and 
place its middle joint thus crooked against the side of the 
forefinger of the left "G" hand, pointing upward (K of the 
double alphabet), and draw it away toward self. XXI, 388. 

In. — Place the right "&" hand downward into the left "0" 
hand. 

Into. — Holding the left open hand out in front, palm down, 
and pointing toward the right, push the right "B" hand, 
palm down, from toward self down and under the left. 

Of. — Hold the right "B" hand out forward from the side, 
pointing outward, and held edgewise ; drawing the elbow 
slightly back, turn the hand palm down with a twisting mo- 
tion; then continue to twist it until the palm is toward the 
right and as it assumes this position push the hand slightly 
toward the right and front. This sign indicates the idea of 
possession to some extent. Or, 

(2) Hold the right "G" hand out straight from the side, 
pointing outward; give it a turning, twisting motion toward 
the inside, so the back of the hand is turned up ; the forefinger 
describes a peculiar arch over from left to right. Or. 



108 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

(3) Hold out the right "0" hand straight from the side and 
somewhat elevated; twisting it with a downward motion out- 
ward bring it into the position of "F." 

On. — Lay the right open hand upon the back of the left. 

Upon. — Lift the right hand to the position as above. 

Off. — Having placed the right open hand upon the back of 
the left, throw, or let it fall off. 

Out. — Place the right "5" hand, pointing upward, in the left 
"C;" let it drop down and out of the left, the latter closing 
over it to "O" hand. 

Out of. — (Away from). Placing the right "5" hand in 
the left "C," pointing it downward, lift it upward and out 
toward the front, and close the left hand under it to "0." 
For Out of in sense of "gone" see that word. 

Through. — Push the right "B" hand edgewise outward be- 
tween the middle and third fingers of the left, which are open 
and closed over against the forefinger and little finger re- 
spectively, and pointing upward. XXI, 389. 

Till.— Holding the forefinger of the left "G" hand in front, 
pointing upward, palm to self, push the forefinger of the right 
"6" hand outward to and touching it, but let the right hand 
move slowly, and describe an arch over from self to the fore- 
finger. XXI, 390. Or, 

(2) Move the bent forefinger of the right "G" hand, palm 
down, forward a short distance and then drop it. 

To. — Same motion, but move the right forefinger straight 
to the left with an upward motion. 

Toward. — Same motion but not touching the left forefinger. 

With. — Hold the "A" hands side by side together, thumbs 
up, moving them forward together a little. XXI, 391. 

Without. — First sign "with," then let the hands drop away 
toward the sides, opening the while. XXI, 392. 

Like. — Same as for "same," see preceding pages. 

Against. — Strike the palm of the left hand with the end of 
the right "B" hand, holding the left hand so the right is 
thrown straight outward toward the left. XXI, 378. 

About. — Hold the left "&" hand out, pointing to the right, 
and around it circle the forefinger of the right "G" hand, 
pointing to the left. XXI, 380. 

Note: About, in sense of "almost" or "nearly" is signed 
like these words, as the signs always stand for the idea and 
not the word itself. 



Plate XVIII 




343 World 344 Earth 345 Land 346 Dark 347 Water 



BE' 




348 Rain 349 Ice, Freeze 350 Flower 351 Tree 352 Iron 




353 Priest 353 Devil 360 Curse 361 Baptize 362 Episcopal 



Plate XX 





3feiNation 3&1/ American 3trEngland 3 16 Scotland 3fc7Ireland 

& 4^ 3 




3fc2Germany 3fc?Spain 370 Rome 37/ Greece 372 Negro 





TMsia. China 37</New York 37SWashing;ton 37^ Indian 377 Jew 



Plate XXI. 




3»J Under 3 *<t- Between ju" Except 3f <~ By J "7 For 




3' « From 3*1 Thru 5 f Till, to 3 ?' With iv Without 



Plate XXII. 





AA 




3« Why 374Because 3ir If 3 ?fc M oney 397 Bills 




J?«Very 3 9? House 4°° Humbug </o/Deaf mute ^Multiply 



&%> 




tl 




>i°3 Add 4014 Subtract ¥»f Divide V 6 Principle f»7 Li| 
^Conscience W Machine y/« Pleasant TjBlaudet oSJ 




Plate XXIII. 




m 







t'3 One WTwo V* Three f' fo Four 







y/7 Five H'S six V? Seven yaoEight 







V 2 -' Nine 4^1 Ten v^Ejeven qa?Twenty 





t 




V a v Thirty va^One hundred </a*One thousand 



Plate XXX. 



flit 




Plate XXVIII. 




What 



Dp You 



Want? 



bood bye 



Sample Sentences. 






A MANUAL OF SIGNS 109 

Above. — Touch the back of the open left hand, pointing out- 
ward, toward the right with the end of the open right, lift the 
latter away, and holding it still flatwise, let it describe a circle 
in the air. And, 

(2) In the sense of "more than:" Place the end of the 
right bent hand, palm down, on the end of the open left hand, 
the right several inches above the left, drawing it first a little 
toward you and then directly above its original position. Note 
that you indicate an excess. 

Across, Over. — Holding the left "B" hand out, palm down 
and pointing toward the right, pass the right "B" hand edge- 
wise across the back of the left. XXI, 379. 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Why. — Place the end of the open right hand on the head, 
above the right eye ; bring it forward and downward, the 
hand as it drops assuming "Y" position. XXII, 393. 

Because. — Place the end of the forefinger of the right " L " 
hand at the forehead, above the right eye ; draw the hand away 
to the side, assuming the position of "A," and then raise the 
hand on a level with the top of the head. The hand is some- 
times given a peculiar twisting motion. XXII, 394. 

As. — With the forefingers of the "G" hands extending out- 
ward, place the hands over toward the right, parallel, and 
then carry them over to the left side where they assume a 
similar position. 

If, Whether. — Bring the "P" hands up in front and balance 
them up and down like the pans of a pair of scales. XXI, 395. 

Proportion. — Same as in "as" but use the "P" hands. 

Money. — Strike the left open palm with the back of the 
right "&" hand several times. XXII, 396. 

Bills. — Draw the left hand edgewise between the thumb and 
fingers of the right hand. This sign also signifies "Dollars." 
XXII, 397. 

Very. — Place the "V" hands near together, palm to palm, 
and draw apart toward the sides. XXII, 398. 

Policeman.— Place the right "C" hand to the left side in 
position of policeman's star. 

Jail. — Cross the fingers of the right "4" hand across those 
of the left. 

House. — Place the ends of the open hands together in the 
shape of a roof. XXII, 399. 

Town, City. — Eepeat the sign for "house" a number of 
times, moving the hands here and there or from side to side. 

Things. — Placing the right "&" hand over toward the left, 
palm up, draw it toward the right, dropping the hand con- 
tinuously. 

Bone (or anything hard like porcelain, etc). — Strike the 
front teeth with the end of the forefinger of the right hand. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 111 

Dish. — Sign for "bone," then with the ends of the hands 
together draw them toward self in a curve, bringing the heels 
together and thus indicating the round shape of a dish. 

Knife. — AYhittle against the left forefinger with the right 
"H" hand. 

Fork.— Make a fork with the right "V" hand and "stab" 
it against the left palm. 

Spoon. — Imitate the use of a spoon with the right "H" hand. 

Road. — Holding the open hands palm to palm and pointing 
forward, carry them forward as if they represented the sides 
of a road. 

Fence. — Lock the ends of the "5" hands and place at the 
side, then draw apart. 

Rubber. — Strike the upper teeth from below with the end of 
the thumb of the right "A" hand, carrying the hand outward. 

Watch. — Make motion of drawing a watch from the pocket 
and carrying it to the ear. 

Democrat. — Shake the right "D" hand. 

Republican. — Shake the right "E" hand. 

Room. — Represent the four sides of a room, first by placing 
the hands on opposite sides, and then opposite in front; in 
the first the hands are palm to palm and in the last the palm 
of the right, being farthest out, is toward the back of the left. 

List. — With the open left hand as a paper or pad strike it 
with the end of the open right hand, first at the top and re- 
peatedly farther down each time, representing a number of 
things put down or inventoried. 

Chair. — Point the forefingers of the "G" hands down, hold- 
ing the hands apart the distance of the legs; carry the hands 
back and represent the hind legs and then sign "sit." 

Table. — Same, but finish by drawing the hands, palms down, 
apart to represent the top of a table. 

Key. — Twist the crooked forefinger of the right "G" hand 
in the center of the left palm. 

Soap. — Draw the end of the right open hand downward 
against the palm of the open left. 

Humbug, Impostor. — Place the bent hands one against the 
back of the other in front, palms toward self, and bend both 
hands together downward, bending from the knuckle joints. 
XXII, 400. 



112 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Door. — Place the open hands edge to edge, pointing upward ; 
swing the right hand away from the left and bring it back 
again. 

Flag.— Hold the right forearm pointing up, supported on the 
left hand, and bending the hand from the wrist, wave it. 

Basket. — Placing the right "G" hand under the wrist of the 
left, carry it in a semi-circle to the elbow. 

Fire. — Holding the bent hands, fingers pointing upward, 
move first one hand and then the other upward, wiggle the 
fingers, thus representing the flames. IX, 194. 

Hay. — Push the right "4" hand upward in front of or 
against the mouth. 

Barn. — Sign "hay house," or "horse house." 

Deaf-mute. — Place the end of the forefinger of the right 
"G" hand at the right ear and then carry it around and place 
it against the mouth. XXII, 401. 

Principle. — Throw the right "P" hand against the upheld 
palm of the open left hand. XXII, 406. 

Conscience. — Holding the right "G" hand just above the 
right side of the head, end of finger pointing toward the right 
temple, let the hand drop toward the head but not touching 
it. Repeat several times. XXII, 408. 

Machine. — Lock the fingers of the bent "C" hands in imita- 
tion of the cogs of corresponding wheels and rock them to- 
gether several times in imitation of wheels turning together. 
XXII, 409. 

Personal signs. — Signs are frequently given to individuals, 
vhich in conversation are used instead of spelling out the 
person's name. The following will suffice for illustrations. 

Rev. T. H. Gallaudet. — Place the "G" hand at the right eye, 
the forefinger above and the thumb immediately below; draw 
the hand away toward the right and as the hand leaves the 
head bring the ends of the forefinger and thumb together. 
XXII, 411. 

Dr. E. M. Gallaudet. — Place the right "M" hand against 
the left side of the chest near the shoulder, the ends of the 
fingers touching the body; draw the hand to the right side 
of the chest to a similar position. XXII, 412. 



COUNTING 

I to 10. — Begin by holding up the forefinger for 1; then 
two fingers for 2 ; for 3 bring up the thumb with the two 
fingers; for 4 draw back the thumb against the palm and hold 
up the four fingers, and for 5 the fingers and thumb. For 6, 
while the other fingers are extended, draw down the end of 
the little finger against the end of the thumb ; for 7 draw down 
the third finger same, and for 8 and 9 the middle and fore- 
finger respectively. Note that only one finger touches the 
thumb at a time, all the remaining fingers being extended. For 
10, hold up the thumb of the "A" hand and shake it from side 
to side with a twisting motion from the wrist but not moving 
the arm, or, extending the thumb of the "A" hand toward the 
left, give it a twisting jerk toward the left (not moving the 
arm) until it points upward. XXIII, 413 to 421. 

II to 20. — Make 10 as described in last line and then add all 
the other digits up to 9. In common practice this is short- 
ened and instead of making the full sign for 10 the forefinger 
is extended from under the thumb of "A" hand as if forcibly 
released for 11, and the same with the two fingers for 12 ; for 
13 the two fingers and thumb are thrown out straight with the 
two fingers for 12; for 14 the fingers are thrown 
out and the thumb drawn quickly against the palm; 
for 5 the whole hand is thrown open; and for 16, 
17, 18, and 19 the hand is closed as in "A" and the fingers 
are thrown out into the positions for the figures, the hand 
at first always being in position of "A." For 20 the position 
of the right hand is as in "Gr," except that the thumb and 
forefinger have been drawn farther apart and the palm is 
down ; move the hand to the right with a slight jerk and close 
the ends of the thumb and forefinger. In common practice 
the thumb and forefinger in position as above are simply 
snapped together. XXIII, 422, 423. 

21 to 30. — In the twenties, begin the motion with the "L" 
hand, palm outward; throw the hand toward the right with 
a jerk and then add the numbers 1 to 9. The jerk is not essen- 
tial but is advisable as it adds distinctness to the figures. This 
is especially true of figures above 50. For 30 make 3 ; then jerk 



114 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

hand to right and make cipher with the ends of the thumb and 
fingers brought to a point. XXIII, 424. 

31 to 40. — Make 3 ; jerk hand to the right and add the' fig- 
ures as above. For 40 make 4; then jerk to right and make 
cipher for "0." 

41 to 50. — Make 4; then jerk hand to right and add figures 
as above. For 50 make 5 and then "0," the jerk always being 
part of the movement. 

In 60, 70, 80, and 90 the figures 6, 7, 8, and 9 are first made 
and then simply jerked to the right, the cipher already being 
made by the end of the finger against the thumb. Some again 
draw the ends of the fingers together, but the above method 
is preferable as being the more correct. 

In adding the figures to 6, 7, 8, and 9, the jerk should not 
be omitted, for unless it is done great confusion is experienced, 
the difference between 69 and 96, between 85 and 58, etc., not 
being clear. 

For 100 make 1 and then " C ; " for 200 and so on make the 
figures and add "C. " Above these add the figures as made 
before. XXIII, 425. 

For 1,000, 2,000, etc., make the prime figure, then strike 
the palm of the open left hand with the end of the right "M" 
or simply with the bent right hand. Above these add the 
figures as made before. XXIII, 426. 

For 1,000,000, 2,000,000, etc., make the prime figure, then 
strike the left palm as in thousand but twice instead of only 
once. Billion is expressed by striking the palm three times; 
trillion, four times. 

For the fractions, make the numerator, then, lowering the 
hand quickly, make the denominator. To add distinctness it 
may be advisable to draw the fractional line in the air with 
the finger. 

For the ordinals make the usual figure sign, then give the 
hand a twisting jerk from the wrist, not moving the hand or 
arm from its position. 

Arithmetic. — Hold the "V" hands pointing upward, the 
palms toward self; throw the right hand toward the left and 
the left toward the right so they meet and cross, the back of 
the right "V" passing against the palm of the left "V." Ee- 
peat the motion several times. This sign may also be used to 
mean to figure or calculate anything or estimate. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 115 

Multiply. — Made the same as for "arithmetic," but the 
motion made but once instead of being repeated several times. 
XXII, 402. 

Add. — Hold the left "&" hand pointing up and rather low; 
upon its end place the end of the right "&" hand pointing 
down ; move both hands upward, lifting the right hand and 
striking it against the left several times as they rise. XXII, 
403. 

Subtract. — Holding the open left hand with palm toward 
self, strike the ends of the fingers of the right bent hand 
against its palm and drop the right hand down away from the 
left, as if taking something away from it. XXII, 404. 

Divide. — (Long division). "With the forefingers of the "G" 
hands trace in the air the two right angles placed at either 
side of the dividend. XXII, 405. 

For short division, beginning with the end of the thumb of 
the left " L " hand trace the length of the thumb and forefinger 
with the end of the forefinger of the right "G" hand, thus 
indicating the right angle placed under the dividend. 



APPENDIX 



DISTINCTIVELY CATHOLIC SIGNS 



APPROVED BY CATHOLIC DEAF-MUTE CONFERENCE 



REV. FATHER F. A. MOELLER, S. J., Chairman 



INTRODUCTION 

Since a good signer knows how, by skillful combination, to 
make his ideas clear with even a limited number of signs, 
many signs perhaps desired on the following list are not given. 

Signs in common use, or given in Long's Dictionary, or in 
the Dictionary by a Sister of St. Joseph, which sufficiently 
express the Catholic idea, are not given in the list, for instance, 
the sign for "Lord." 

"Where several signs are in common use, but only one ex- 
presses the Catholic idea, that sign is the only one given, e. g., 
the sign for "Church." 

Where signs have been appropriated for common use so that 
they are no longer distinctive, a new sign has been invented, 
e. g., a sign for "Priest." 

Proper names should, as a rule, be spelled. 



CATHOLIC SIGNS 

Abbe de l'Epee.— "Priest," followed by the sign for 
"Sword." 

Absolution (Sacramental). — Blessed, forgiveness. 

Abstinence. — The upward pointing thumb of the right "A" 
hand is drawn over the mouth from left to right. XXIX, 427. 

Adam. — The thumb point of the closed right hand is thrown 
up and touched to the right side of the forehead. 

Advent. — Jesus, approaching, time. 

Adore. — The open palms from both sides of the head are 
brought in an attitude of prayer, while the head bows rever- 
ently. XXIX, 428. 

Advocate. — Prayer, friend. 

Altar (for Mass) — Mass, table. 

Angelus. — Angel, prayer. 

Apostles.— Twelve, sent. 

Archbishop.— Right "A" hand is raised to about the level 
of the forehead. Follow with the sign for "Bishop." (Chief- 
bishop.) 

Ash Wednesday. — Draw a cross on the forehead with the 
closed tips of the "9" hand. XXIX, 429. 

Atonement. — Penance-offer, or the signs for "Make" and 
"Satisfaction." XXIX, 430. 

Baptism.— The "W" hand is tilted over the head as if pour- 
ing water. 

Benediction (of the Blessed Sacrament).— With both hands 
closed as if holding the "Monstrance," trace the form of a 
cross. XXIX, 431. 

Bethlehem. — Jesus, birth, city. 

Bible. — Holy Book. New Testament. — New Holy Book. Old 
Testament. — Old Holy Book. 

Bishop. — The third finger is carried to the lips as if kissing 
the ring. XXIX, 432. 

Brother (Religious). — Trace a falling collar on the breast 
with the separated thumb and index finger of the right hand. 
XXIX, 433. 

Candlemas. — Blessed, candle, day. 



120 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Cardinal. — Red, bishop. 

Catechism. — Catholic, truth, book. 

Charity. — Same as "Love." 

Christmas. — Jesus, birth, day. 

Church. — The "C" hand rests on the back of the closed left 
hand, i. e., built on a rock. XXIX, 4331/ 2 - 

Communion (Holy). — Make the sign for "Eucharist" and 
then with the right index finger touch the breast over the 
heart. 

Communion (of Saints). — Same as "Union." 

Conceived. — Eeceived, life. 

Confession (Sacramental). — Same as "Penance" Sacra- 
ment). 

Confirmation. — A cross is traced on the forehead with the 
thumb of the open right hand, followed by a slight blow with 
the right palm on the right cheek. XXIX, 434. 

Contrition. — Same as "Sorrow." 

Crucifix. — "Jesus" and- a cross made before you by crossing 
the index fingers. XXIX, 435. 

Crucify. — The touching of the left palm with the right index 
finger is followed by a hammering blow on the left palm with 
the right "S" hand. Eepeat the same for the other hand and 
extend both arms. XXIX, 436. 

Dispensation. — Law, excuse. 

Disciples. — Followers of Jesus. 

Easter. — Both "E" hands are held downwards and then by 
a twist of the wrist they are turned upwards and raised. XXIX, 
439. 

Ephpheta. — A St. Andrew's Cross is traced with the out- 
ward right "E" hand in space before the body, as on a ban- 
ner. XXIX, 437. 

Eternity. — The outward right "E" hand traces successive 
verticle circles. 

Evangelist (Writer of the Gospels). — Holy, writer. 

Eve. — The thumb point of the right "A" hand is thrown 
upwards and touches the right cheek, indicating the first 
woman. XXIX, 438. 

Examination (of Conscience). — With the right "E" hand 
facing you, trace small circles on the forehead and follow with 
the sign for "Conscience." XXIX, 440. 

Extreme Unction. — With the thumb of the right "A" hand 
trace a cross on the eyelids. XXIX, 441. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 121 

Eucharist. — With the thumb and. right index finger of the 
"9" hand trace a cross before the lips. XXIX, 442. 

Fast.— Draw the thumb of the right "F" hand along the 
lips from left to right. XXIX, 443. 

Fortitude. — Patient, suffering, or the sign for "Brave." 

Gentile. — Not, Jew. 

Gospel. — Jesus', story. 

Grace. — The gathered finger tips of the right hand are low- 
ered over the head and then spread, without, however, touching 
the head. 

Grace (Sanctifying). — Holy -making, grace. XXIX, 444. 

Grace (Actual). — Helping grace. 

Hell.— Eternal, fire. 

Heresy. — False, faith. 

Holy Orders. — The thumb of the right "A" hand is run 
along the thumb and forefinger of the open left hand and 
back again so as to finish at the thumb point. Do the same 
for the other hand. XXIX, 445. 

Hypocrite. — False, friend. 

Immaculate Conception.— "With the right index finger trace 
a circle around the crown of the head and then drop the arms 
at full length, palms outward. XXIX, 446. 

Indulgence. — Punishment, forgiven, or with the "P" hand 
as used for "Purgatory" make a rotary rubbing-out motion 
on the left palm. 

Jerusalem. — Holy, city. 

Jesuits. — Sign S. J. 

Latin. — Draw the thumb point of the right "L" hand from 
the forehead to the tip of the nose. XXIX, 447. 

Lent. — The thumb of the right "L" hand is drawn along 
the lower lip from left to right. XXX, 448. 

Limbo. — Resting place. 

Mary. — -With right "M" hand trace a verticle circle before 
the forehead. XXX, 449. ' 

Mary (Virgin). — "With right "V" hand trace a verticle 
circle before the forehead and follow with the sign for "Mary." 
XXX, 450. 

Mass. — Right and left "F" hands meet, and are then ele- 
vated, as at the Consecration. XXX, 45*1. 

Minister. — Protestant-preacher. 

Miracle. — "Wonder, work. 



122 THE SIGN LANGUAGE 

Mission.— Eight "M" hand pressed over the heart is fol- 
lowed by the sign for God. XXX, 452. 

Mystery. — -Hidden, truth. 

Nun. — With open hands trace a veil from head to shoulder. 
XXX, 453. 

Pope. — The finger tips of both hands are joined over the 
head in three successive heights, indicating the triple crown. 
XXX, 455. 

Purgatory. — With the right "P" hand trace a small circle . 
on the upturned palm of the left and then rest the second fin- 
ger of the "P" hand in the center of the left palm. XXX. 457. 

Penance (in general). — Imitate scourging the left elbow. 

Penance (Sacrament). — The fingers of both right hands 
crossed are held to the right ear as if forming a screen. XXX, 
454. 

Pilate. — Soman governor. 

Precepts (of the Church). — Church, laws. 

Priest. — Both "F" hands are brought together as at the 
"Oremus. " (The closed thumb and index fingers of the "F" 
hand denote consecrated hands and "F" is also the initial of 
-"Father.") XXX, 456. 

Protestant. — The first and second fingers of the right hand 
are thrown against the verticle palm of the left hand. 

Rector. — After the sign for priest follow with the sign for 
"Eule." 

Redemptorist.— Sign C. SS. R. 

Religion. — The "R" hand is moved from the heart heaven- 
ward. 

Retreat (Spiritual). — The "R" hand is placed on the fore- 
head and on the lips. XXX, 458. 

Rosary. — Both hands having the thumbs and indices closed, 
meet and are then drawn apart horizontally while the thumbs 
and indices opening and closing imitate the counting of the 
beads. XXX, 459. 

Sacrament. — Same sign as for "Grace," but the lowered 
hand touches the head. XXX, 460. 

Saint. — The palm of the right hand sliding over the upturned 
palm of the left hand finishes in an "S" hand. XXX, 461. 

Saint Joseph. — The sign for "Saint" is followed by the little 
finger of the right hand tracing a "J" on the palm of the left 
hand. XXX, 462. 



A MANUAL OF SIGNS 123 

Saint John. — The same as the preceding, except that the 
"J" is traced on the back of the left hand. 

Sanctifying. — Making, holy. 

Scapular. — The index fingers draw an imaginary string from 
the shoulders meeting at the breast. XXX, 463. 

Sin. — Law, broken. 

Sin (Mortal). — Large, sin. 

Sin (Venial). — Small, sin. 

Sloth. — Soul, laziness. 

Sodality. — Same as "Society," or trace with the right 
thumb and index apart, a badge downward over the heart. 

Stations. — Holy, cross, way. 

Statue. — Trace with the thumbs of the "A" hands the out- 
lines of a figure. 

Supernatural. — From heaven. 

Tabernacle. — Eucharist dwelling. 

Temperance. — The vertical open right hand is passed through 
the middle fingers of the left, palm towards you, followed by 
the sign for path, indicating the middle way. XXX, 464. 

Testament.— See "Bible." 

Trespass. — Same as for "Sin;" or make the sign for "Of- 
fend," i. e., the indices of both hands are made to collide in an 
upward motion at the height of the breast. XXX, 465. 

Trinity. — Encircle the right "3" hand with the thumb and 
middle finger of the left, and then draw the right hand down- 
ward through the encircling fingers and exhibit the index 
finger of the left hand, i. e., three in one. XXX, 466. 

Vow. — Promise to God. 



INDEX TO CHAPTERS AND PLATES 

(Roman figures in parentheses refer to plates; Arabic figures to 

pages.) 

Introduction 3 

The Sign Language -- 5 

Explanatory 13 

Auxiliary Verbs (I) , 14 

Pronouns (II) 17 

Mankind and Relationship (III) 21 

Sensations, Feelings, and the Affections (IV, V) 24 

Mental Actions, Language and the Communication of Ideas 

(VI, VII) 33 

Motion and Action (VIII, IX, X) 45 

Occupations of Mankind (XI) 64 

Adjectives and Abstract Nouns (XII, XIII) 67 

Measurement of Time, Space and Quantity, (XIV, XV) 79 

Articles of Food, Fruit, etc. (XVI) 87 

Animals (XVII) 92 

The World and Nature (XVIII) 96 

The Deity and Religion (XIX) 100 

Countries and Nationalities (XX) 103 

Prepositions (XXI) 106 

Miscellaneous (XXII) 110 

Numbers and Counting (XXIII) 113 

Catholic Signs (XXIX, XXX) 119 

The Lord's Prayer (XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII) Insert at Back 

Sample Sentences, etc. (XXVIII) Opposite page 108 



INDEX 

Note: In looking for the word desired think rather of the idea 
and get the word which nearest expresses it, or words that will de- 
fine it; disregard the grammatical form of the word and look for 
nouns, adjectives or verbs under the one form of the word. Figures 
in the right hand column refer to the page where the description 
will be found. 



A. 

Abandon 59 

Abbe de l'Bpee 119 

About 108 

Ability 38 

Above 109 

Abraham 101 

Absence 56, 78 

Absolution 119 

Abstinence 119 

Absurd 35 

Accept 49 

Accompany 62 

Accomplish 48 

Accuse 37, 59 

Across 109 

Act 57 

Action 73 

Adam 119 

Add 56, 115 

Admire 42 

Adore 119 

Adorn 53 

Advanced 46 

Advent 119 

Advise • 41 

Advocate 119 

Afraid :. 71 

Africa 104 

After 81 

After (in place) 103 

Afternoon 80 

Again 83 

Against 108 

Age 81 



Agree 42 

Aid 52 

All 20 

Alone 74 

Altar 119 

Always 82 

Ambitious 31 

America 103 

Among 106 

Angelus 119 

Angry 26 

Animal 92 

Announce 42 

Annoyance 40 

Another 20 

Answer 40 

Any 18 

Any one 19 

Anything 18 

Anxious 32 

Apostles 119 

Appear 38, 59 

Apple 89 

Apply 40 

Appoint 52 

Approach 55 

Approbation 38 

Archbishop 119 

Argus 42 

Arithmetic 114 

Army 66 

Around 106 

Arrange 51 

Arrive 55 

Artist 65 



126 



INDEX 



As 110 

Ascend 63 

Ash Wednesday 119 

Asia 105 

Ask 41 

Ask alms 62 

Aspire 61 

Astonishment 29 

Assembly 49 

Assume 59 

At 106 

Atonement 119 

At a loss 44 

Attend 51 

Aunt 22 

Authority 66 

Automobile 63 

Avaricious 32 

Avoid 44 

Awful 73 

B. 

Baby 22 

Bachelor 22 

Bad 67 

Banana 90 

Baker 64 

Baptism 119 

Baptize 101 

Baptist 101 

Barn 112 

Base 74 

Bashful 30 

Basket 112 

Be, to 14 

Beans 88 

Bear (bring forth) 56 

Bear (animal) 94 

Beard 63 

Beat 57 

Beautiful 76 

Because 110 

Become 50 

Bee 95 

Beer 91 

Before (prep) 106 

Before (adverb) 81, 106 

Beg 62 

Begin 39 



Behind 106 

Believe 34 

Belong to 32 

Below 106 

Benediction 119 

Benefit 52 

Beside 106 

Bethlehem 119 

Between 107 

Beyond 85 

Bible 101, 119 

Bills 110 

Bird 92 

Biscuit 89 

Bishop 119 

Bitter 26 

Black 77 

Blacksmith 65 

Blame 37 

Bless 44 

Blossom 98 

Blue 77 

Blush 30 

Bone 110 

Book 42 

Borrow 53 

Both 19 

Boy 21 

Brave 71 

Bread 87 

Breakfast 85 

Breathe 53 

Brief 60 

Bright 71, 96 

Bright (smart) 70 

Bring 45 

Brother 22 

Brother (religious) 119 

Brother-in-law 22 

Brown 77 

Build 65 

Bull 95 

Burn 54 

Bury 53 

Bush , . . . 99 

Busy 73 

But 107 

Butter 87 

Butterfly 94 



INDEX 



127 



Button 63 

Buy 49 

By 107 

C. 

Cabbage 91 

Cabinet-maker 64 

Cake 88 

Calculate 114 

California 105 

Call 41 

Calm 35 

Camel 93 

Camp 63 

Can 38 

Canada 105 

Candlemas 119 

Can't 14, 38 

Captain 66 

Cardinal 120 

Careful 50, 73 

Careless 73 

Carpenter 64 

Carriage 47 

Carry 45 

Cars 46 

Cat 92 

Catch 45 

Catechism 120 

Catholic 101 

Cause 56 

Centre 86 

Chair Ill 

Change 50 

Chapel 102 

Character 43 

Charity 120 

Chase 50 

Cheap 76 

Check 55 

Cheerful 24 

Cheese 87 

Chicago 105 

Chicken 92 

China 105 

Choose 40 

Christ 100 

Christian 102 

Christmas 120 



Church 102, 120 

City ...' 110 

Clean 76 

Clear 68, 96 

Climb 45 

Clouds 97 

Close 60 

Cock 93 

Coffee S8 

Cold 31 

College 40 

Collide 54 

Color 77 

Come 53 

Command s 58 

Commence 39 

Commend 38 

Communion 120 

Compare 62 

Complete 57 

Conceived 120 

Condense 60 

Conduct 57 

Confess 42 

Confession 120 

Confidence 32 

Confirmation 120 

Confused 30, 44 

Confusion 57 

Congratulate 38 

Connect 59 

Conscience 112 

Consider 39 

Contempt 27 

Contented 29 

Contest 58 

Continue 53 

Contribute 51 

Contrition 120 

Control 52 

Conversation 36 

Convey 45 

Cook 64 

Copy 49 

Corn 88 

Correct 37, 74 

Country 113 

Courage 71 

Courteous 74 



128 



INDEX 



Cousin 22 

Cow 92 

Coward 71 

Cracker 89 

Crazy 34 

Cream 87 

Criticize 37 

Cross 26 

Crucifix 120 

Crucify 120 

Cruel 26 

Cry 54 

Cry out 54 

Curious 73 

Currant 90 

Curse 101 

Cut 62 

Cut one, to 27 

D. 

Daily 81 

Dangerous 73 

Dark 97 

Daughter 22 

Day 79 

Dead 53 

Deaf-mute 112 

Dear (expensive) 76 

Debate 42 

Decide 39 

Decline 46 

Decrease 54 

Deed 57 

Deep 72 

Deer 94 

Defeat 57 

Defend 59 

Deficiency 56 

Deflect 55 

Dejected 25 

Delighted 24 

Demand 49 

Democrat Ill 

Denmark .104 

Deny 42 

Depart 45 

Depend 61 

Describe 36 

Destroy 53 



Determine 39 

Deterioration 46 

Deviate 55 

Devil 100 

Die 53 

Die out 53 

Differ 32 

Different 73 

Different objects 20 

Difficult 69,- 78 

Dinner 85 

Dirty 76 

Disagree 32 

Disappear 53 

Discharge 55 

Disciples 120 

Disconnect 59 

Discontented 29 

Discouraged 59 

Discuss 42 

Dish Ill 

Dislike 24 

Disobey 28 

Dispensation 120 

Disposed to 43 

Dissatisfied 29 

Dissolve 53 

Distribute 51 

Distrust 33 

Divers 20 

Divide 115 

Do 15 

Doctor 65 

Dog 92 

Donkey 92 

Door 112 

Don't 39 

Don't care 31 

Don't know 34 

Don't want 29 

Doubt 34 

Doughnut 89 

Dream 33 

Dressmaker 65 

Drink 46 

Drink (liquor) 91 

Drive 45 

Drunk 78 

Drunkard 91 



INDEX 



129 



Dry 77 

Duck 93 

Due 49 

Dull 70 

Dumbfounded 44 

Dunce 39 

During 84 

Duty 37 

E. 

Each 19 

Earn 61 

Earnest 30 

Earth 96 

Earthquake 97 

East 55 

Easter 120 

Easy 69 

Eat 46 

Effect 56 

Effect (force) 56 

Effort 57 

Egg 91 

Egypt 104 

Either 19 

Elect 52 

Electricity 99 

Elephant 93 

Embarrass 30 

Emperor 66 

Empty 78 

End 57 

Endure 29 

Enemy 26 

Engagement 31 

England 103 

Enough 68 

Envy 32 

Epee, abbe de 1' 119 

Ephpheta 120 

Episcopal 101 

Establish 62 

Estimate 114 

Eternity 120 

Eucharist 121 

Europe 105 

Evade 44 

Evangelist 120 

Eve 120 I 



Evening 80 

Every 19 

Every day 81 

Exact 74 

Exaggerate 44 

Examination 41 

Examination (of conscience) . .120 

Exceed 78 

Except 107 

Exchange 56 

Excessive 78 

Excited 29 

Excuse 37 

Exist 14 

Expand 60 

Expect 28 

Expel 55 

Expensive 76 

Explain 36 

Extreme Unction 120 

F. 

Fade 53 

Fail 48 

Fair 75 

Faith 32 

Fall (autumn) 85 

Fall 48 

Fall in love with 24 

False 72 

Far 72 

Farmer 65 

F'ashionable 78 

Fascinate 27 

Fast 55, 74 

Fast (abstain) 121 

Fat 69 

Father 21 

Father-in-law 22 

Fault 37 

Fear 30 

Fearful 73 

Feebleminded 34 

Feed 46 

Feel 25 

Female 21 

Fence Ill 

Few 20, 77 

Field 99 

Fight 26, 58 



130 



INDEX 



Figures 113 

Find 50 

Find fault 37 

Fine 74 

Fine (charge) 61 

Finish 57 

Fire 54, 112 

Fish (v) 60 

Fish 88, 95 

First ■. 83 

Flag 112 

Flirt 24 

Flour 88 

Flower 98 

Fly 48 

Fly (insect) 95 

Follow 50 

Food 46, 87 

Fool (hoax) 43 

Foolish 34 

Foot 84 

For 107 

Foreman 66 

Forenoon 80 

Forever 82 

Forget 35 

Forgive 37 

Fork Ill 

Fortitude 121 

Found 62 

Foundation 62 

Fox 94 

France 104 

Free 28 

Freeze 97 

Friend 26 

Frighten 30 

Friday 84 

Frog 94 

From 107 

Fruit 90 

Full 68 

Funny 27, 73 

Future tense 16 

G. 

Gallaudet, T. H 112 

Gallaudet, E. M 112 

Garden 99 

Gathering 49 



Gentile 121 

Gentleman* 21 

Gentleness 26 

Geography 96 

Germany 104 

Get 45 

Ghost 102 

Girl 21 

Give 45 

Give up 59 

Glistening 71 

Globe 96 

Gloomy 25 

Glory 38 

Go 45 

Goat 92 

God 100 

Gold 99 

Gone 78 

Good 67 

Good bye 32 

Good enough 75 

Goose 93 

Gospel 121 

Gossip 35 

Govern 52 

Governor 66 

Grace (sanctifying) 121 

Grace (actual) 121 

Graduate 52 

Grain 88 

Grandfather 22 

Grandmother 22 

Grape 90 

Grapevine 99 

Grass 98 

Gravy 87 

Gray 77 

Greece 104 

Green 77 

Grow 52 

Gum 91 

H. 

Habit 39 

Hang 61 

Happen 43, 51 

Happy 24 

Hard 68 



INDEX 



131 



Harm 60 

Hate 24 

Harvest 52 

Have (possess) 15 

Have (finished) 15 

Have to (obligation) 15 

Hay 112 

He 17 

Hear 25 

Heaven 100 

Heavens, the 96 

Heavy 78 

Heedless 73 

Help 52 

Hell 101, 121 

Hen 92 

Her 17 

Here 86 

Heresy 121 

Herself «17 

Hesitate 50 

Hide SI 

High 72 

High (prominent) 74 

Hill 9« 

Himself 17 

His 17 

History 43 

Hoax 43 

Hog 92 

Holiday 85 

Holland 104 

Holy 76 

Holy Orders 121 

Home 23 

Homely 76 

Honor 42 

Hope 28 

Horse 92 

Hot 31 

Hour 82 

House 110 

Humble 31 

Humbug Ill 

Humorous 27, 73 

Hungry 32 

Hunt 60 

Hurry 55 

Hurt, te feel 32 



Husband 22 

Hypocrite 121 

I. 

I 17 

Ice 97 

Idea 33 

Idle 71 

Idol 101 

If 110 

Ignorant 33 

Immaculate Conception 121 

Imagine 33 

Imagine (invent) 33 

Important 78 

Impostor Ill 

Improve 46 

In 107 

In a few days 80 

Inch 84 

Incline 43 

Increase 56 

Incredulity 34 

Indeed , 72 

Indian 105 

Indifference 27 

Indulgence 121 

Industrious 30 

Influence (cause) 56 

Influence (example) 56 

Inform 35 

Injure 60 

Innocent 37 

Insect 95 

Intelligence 34 

Intend 37 

Intercept 55 

Interfere 40 

Interrupt 40 

Into 107 

Introduce 51 

Invent 33 

Investigate 61 

Invite 51 

Ireland 103 

Iron 99 

Is 14 

It 17 

Italy 104 



132 



INDEX 



J. 

Jail 110 

Jealous 32 

Jerusalem 121 

Jesuits 121 

Jew : 105 

Join 59 

Joy 24 

Judge 39 

Jump 48 

Just 75 

K. 

Keep 50 

Key Ill 

Kill 60 

Kind 26 

King 66 

Knife Ill 

Know 34 

L. 

Lady 21 

Land 96 

Language 36 

Large 84 

Last 83 

Last week 81 

Late 85 

Latin 121 

Law 64 

Lazy 71 

Lead 47 

Lean 69 

Learn 34 

Leave 45 

Leave (let alone) 45 

Lecture 64 

Lemon 90 

Lend 54 

Lent 121 

Leopard 93 

Letter 39 

Lie 72 

Lie (recline) 61 

Light 78, 96, 97 

Lightning 97 

Like 24 

Limbo 121 



Line 63 

Lion 93 

Liquor 91 

List Ill 

Little 84 

Live 53 

Lonesome 74 

Long 68 

Look 25, 38 

Look for 54 

Lord ' 100 

Lose 50 

Love 24 

Low 74 

M. 

Machine 112 

Magnificent 74 

Maid 23 

Ma.ke 51 

Make fun of 37 

Make love to 24 

Male 21 

Man 21 

Many 20 

March 55 

Marry 22 

Mary 121 

Mary (Virgin) 121 

Mass 121 

May 14 

Maybe 14 

Me 17 

Mean 27 

Mean (purpose) 37 

Measure 84 

Meat 87 

Medium 76 

Meet 47 

Meeting 49 

Melt 53 

Memorize 35 

Merchant 65 

Metal 99 

Methodist 101 

Midway 76 

Mile 84 

Milk 87 

Mind 34 

Mine 17 



INDEX 



133 



Mingle 57 

Minister 121 

Minute 82 

Miracle 121 

Mission 122 

Mistake 42 

Mix 57 

Mixed 72 

Molasses 91 

Moment 82 

Monday 84 

Money 75, 110 

Monkey 94 

Month 81 

Monthly 82 

Moon 96 

Morning 79 

Motion forward 46 

More 20 

Moses 101 

Most 20 

Mother 21 

Mother-in-law 22 

Mountain 97 

Mouse 95 

Move 49 

Mow 53 

Much 75, 84 

Mule 92 

Multiply 115 

Music 43 

Muskmelon 91 

Must 15, 37 

My 17 

Myself 17 

Mystery 122 

N. 

Name 41 

Narrow 72 

Nation 103 

Nasty 76 

Near 83 

Necessity 37 

Need 15, 37 

Needle 63 

Neglect 45 

Negro 105 

Neither 19 



Nephew 22 

New 36 

New England 105 

New York 105 

Next (nearest) 83 

Next (in order) 83 

Next week 81 

Never 82 

News 36 

Nice 76 

Niece 22 

Night 80 

Noble 74 

Noiseless 35 

None ". 19 

Noon 80 

North 55 

North America 105 

Norway 104 

Not yet 85 

Now 80 

Nun 122 

Nurse 65 

Nut 89 

O. 

Oatmeal 88 

Obey 28 

Obligation 37 

Observe 38 

Obscure 68 

Obstacle 78 

Obtain 45 

Of 107 

Off 108 

Offer 37, 48 

Officer 66 

Often 83 

Old 67 

On 108 

One another 20 

Once 83 

Onion 88 

Open 60 

Orange 90 

Orator 64 

Order 58 

Orderly 72 



134 



INDEX 



Ornament 53 

Other 20 

Ought 15 

Out 108 

Out of 108 

Over 109 

Owe 49 

Oyster 89 



P. 



Pain 25 

Pardon 37 

Part from 59 

Pass 47 

Past tense 16 

Patient 32 

Peace 29 

Peach 89 

Peak 98 

Peanut 89 

Pear 90 

Peas 88 

Penance (in general) 122 

Penance (Sacramental) 122 

Pepper 87 

Perfect 74 

Perhaps 14 

Permission 14 

Persecute 54 

Persevere 58 

Persist 58 

Personal signs 112 

Perverse 

Photograph 43 

Pick 50 

Pickle 89 

Picture 43 

Pie 89 

Pig 92 

Pigeon 93 

Pilate 122 

Pink 77 

Pity 30 

Place 85 

Plain 68 

Plant 52 

Play 49 



Pleasant 78 

Please 24 

Pleasure 24 

Plenty 68 

Poem 43 

Policeman HO 

Polite 74 

Poor 69 

Poor (lean) 69 

Pope 122 

Possess 15 

Postpone 39 

Potato 87 

Power 38, 56 

Praise 38 

Pray 41 

Preach 6 * 

Precepts 122 

Prepare 51 

Presbyterian 101 

Present tense 16, 80 

President 65 

Pretty 76 

Prevent 55 

Pride 28 

Priest 100, 122 

Principle H2 

Printer 64 

Procrastination 39 

Procession 55 

Produce 56 

Progress 46 

Prominent 74 

Promise 41 

Prophet 102 

Proportion HO 

Propose 37 

Protect 59 

Protestant 122 

Publish 42 

Pumpkin 91 

Punish 53 

Pure 76 

Purgatory 122 

Purple 77 

Purpose 37 

Push 47 

Put in order 51 



INDEX 



135 



Q. 

Quaker 101 

Quail 93 

Quarrel 26 

Queen 66 

Question 41 

Quiet 35 

Quick 55, 74 

R. 

Rabbit 94 

Race 58 

Radish 88 

Railroad 46 

Rain 97 

Rapid 74 

Rat 95 

Razor 63 

Reach 55 

Read 39 

Ready 51, 72 

Reason 43 

Receive 45 

Recline 61 

Recreation 49 

Rector 122 

Refuse 37 

Red 77 

Redemptorist 122 

Refuse 37 

Relief 28 

Relieve 28 

Religion 43, 122 

Remember 35 

Republican Ill 

Reply 40 

Reprove 58 

Resemble 39 

Request 41 

Require 49 

Respect 42 

Response 40 

Responsible 78 

Rest 61 

Retaliate 57 

Retire 45 

Retreat 122 

Revenge 57 

Revive 61 



Rice 88 

Rich 69 

Ride 47 

Ridicule 37 

Right 75 

Rise 59 

River 98 

Road Ill 

Robber 66 

Robin 93 

Rome 104 

Room HI 

Rope 63 

Rosary 122 

Rough 69 

Rubber Ill 

Rude 26 

Rule 52, 66 

Run 48 

Run away 47 

Run for office 40 

Russia 104 

S. 

Sacrament 122 

Sad 25 

Safe 28 

Saint 122 

Saint John 123 

Saint Joseph 122 

Salt 87 

Same 18 

Satisfied 29 

Sanctifying 123 

Saturday 84 

Save 28, 61 

Savior 101 

Scapular 123 

Scare 30 

Scatter 62 

School 40 

Science 33 

Scissors 62 

Scold 43, 58 

Scorn 27 

Scotland 103 

Second 82 

Secret 35 

Secretary 65 



136 



INDEX 



Sec 25, 3S 

Seek 54, 61 

Seem 38 

Select 40, 50 

Self IT 

Sell 49 

Send 46 

Sentence 36 

Separate 60 

Serve 51 

Several 20, 77 

Sew 63 

Shall 15 

Shallow 72 

Shame 30 

Sharp (edge) 70 

Sharp (smart) 70 

Sharp (shrewd) 70 

Shave 63 

She , 17 

Sheep 92 

Ship 47 

Shoe 64 

Shoemaker 64 

Short 68, 71 

Should 15 

Show 36 

Shrewd 70 

Shut 60 

Sick 25 

Sight 38 

Sign 54 

Sign, to 54 

Silly 34 

Silver 99 

Sin 123 

Since 85 

Sink 59 

Sister 22 

Sister-in-law 22 

Sit 52 

Sky 96 

Sleep 62 

Slip away 47 

Sloth 123 

Slow 74 

Sly 70 

Small 84 

Smell 25 



Smooth 70 

Snake 94 

Snow 97 

Snub 27 

Soap m 

Sodality 123 

Soft " 68 

Soldier 66 

Some 19 

Some one 19 

Something 19 

Sometimes 83 

Son 22 

Song 43 

Sorrow 25 

Soup 89 

Sour 2G 

South 55 

South America 105 

Sow 52 

Spain 104 

Speak 35 

Speech 35 

Spend 61 

Spider 95 

Spirit 102 

Spoon HI 

Spring (water) 98 

Spring (season) 85 



Spy 



40 



Squirrel 94 

Stand 48 

Star 96 

Stations 123 

Statue I 23 

Stay 52 

Steal 52 

Still 86 

Still (quiet) 35 

Stop 54 

Strange 78 

Strawberry 90 

Strength 56 

Strike 55 

String 63 

Strong 68 

Struggle 54 

Study 39 

Stupid 70 



INDEX 



137 



Stylish 78 

Subtract 56, 115 

Substitute 56 

Succeed 48 

Such 19 

Suffer 29 

Sugar 89 

Summer 84 

Sun 96 

Sunday 84 

Sunrise 80 

Sunset 80 

Superintendent 66 

Supernatural 123 

Supper 85 

Supplication 41 

Support 52 

Surprise 29 

Surrender 59 

Surveyor <55 

Suspect 40 

Suspend 61 

Suspicion 34, 40 

Swear 101 

Sweet 26 

Sweden 104 

Swim 48 

Switzerland 104 

Sympathy 32 

T. 

Tabernacle 123 

Table Ill 

Tailor 65 

Take 49 

Take care of 50 

Talk (converse) 35 

Tall 71 

Tame 77 

Taste 25 

Tax 61 

Tea 88 

Teach 36, 64 

Tease 54 

Tedious 27 

Telegraph 42 

Telephone 42 

Tell 35 

Tell about 36 



Tell-tale 35 

Temperance 123 

Temptation 62 

Tense 16 

Tent 63 

Testament 119 

That 18, 20 

Them 17 

Themselves 17 

Then 83 

There 8fi 

These 20 

They 17 

Thing 19, 110 

Think 33 

This 20 

Those 20 

Thou 17 

Thread 63 

Thrice 83 

Through 108 

Throw 48 

Thunder 97 

Thursday 85 

Tiger 93 

Till 108 

Time 79 

Timid 71 

Tin 99 

Tired 27 

To ....108 

Toast 89 

Today 80 

Tomatoes 88 

Tomorrow 80 

Toward 108 

Town HO 

Trade 56 

Travel 46 

Treasurer 65 

Tree 99 

Trespass 123 

Trifling 34 

Trinity 123 

Triumph 28 

Trolley car 99 

Trouble 40 

True 72 

Trust 32 



138 



INDEX 



Try 38, 57 

Tuesday 84 

Turkey 93 

Turkey (country) 104 

Turnip 91 

Twice 83 

U. 

Ugly 76 

Uncle 22 

Under 106 

Understand 33 

Unfair 75 

Union, The 103 

United States 103 

Unjust 75 

Uphold 52 

Upon 108 

Urge 56 

Us 17 

Use 57 

V. 

Vain 28 

Valley 97 

Valuable 75 

Various 20, 73 

Very 110 

Vice president 66 

Victory 28 

Vine 99 

Vinegar 91 

Volunteer 40 

Vote 52 

Vow 123 

W. 

Wagon 47 

Wait 28 

Wait upon 51 

Wake 62 

Walk 47 

Want 29 

War 58 

Warm 30 

Warn 41 

Wash 62 

Washington 105 



Water 9T 

Watermelon 90 

Watch HI 

We 17 

Weak 68 

Weakness 56 

Weary 27 

Wednesday 84 

Week 81 

Weekly 82 

Weigh 62 

Well 25 

West 55 

Wet 76 

What 18 

Whatever 18 

When 84 

Where 86 

Whether HO 

Which 18 

While 84 

Whisper 40 

White 77 

Who 18 

Whom 18 

Whose 18 

Why HO 

Wide 72 

Wife 22 

Wild 77 

Wilful 77 

Will 15 

Win 48 

Wind 98 

Wine 91 

Winter 85 

Wisdom 33 

Wise 33 

Wish 29 

With 108 

Withdraw 45 

Without 108 

Wolf 93 

Woman 21 

Wonder 29 

Wont 16 

Word 36 

Work 51 

World 96 



INDEX 



139 



Worm 95 

Worship 102 

Worth 75 

Worthless 75 

Write 38 

Wrong 75 

Y. 

Yard 84 

Year 82 

Yearly 82 



Yell 54 

Yellow 76 

Yesterday 80 

Yet 86 

You 17 

Young 67 

Your 17 

Z. 

Zealous 30 

Zebra 93 



Plate XXIV 




Plate XXV. 




Plate XXVI. 




those 



who 

jfV, 


trespass 


against 


^m- ^ t VMH 





Lead 




i HI 



&a 




Into 



deliver 



Plate XXVII. 




Amen 



Lord's Prayer- — IV.